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Bulgaria

Bulgaria: Holidays. National customs, climate

Public holidays

There are a number of public holidays that do not have a fixed date but are based on the location of Easter. Easter takes place on the first Sunday that follows the first full moon after the beginning of spring. Ash Wednesday is the start of Lent, which ends on Holy Saturday and is 46 days before Holy Saturday. The date for Pentecost is then 50 days after Easter. The Corpus Christi festival is celebrated on the 2nd Thursday after Pentecost. All Saints' Day is celebrated for Orthodox Christians on the 1st Sunday after Pentecost, but for Catholic Christians the date is fixed on November 1st. On October 31, Protestants celebrate Reformation Day. The Halloween festival also takes place on this day.

Date Holiday
January 1 New Year
3 March National holiday
March April Easter
1st of May Labor Day
May 6 Armed Forces Day
May 24 Bulgarian Culture and Literature Day
September 6 Bulgarian Unity Day
September 22 independence Day
24.-26. December Christmas

Source: Countryaah - Bulgaria Holidays

Bulgaria Holidays

Cultural events

January January 6: Jordan day (feast day of John the Baptist)

Kukeri: mask and carnival games

January 7: Ivan day (kinship day and groomsmen day)

January 8: midwives day

February February 1: Trifon Saresan (spring festival)

February 23: Kukeri day (costume festival)

March March 1: Spring

Festival of Russian Music Festival

April Music Festival in Burgas

April 4th: Zwetnitsa (Festival of Flowers)

May Children's choir meeting in Burgas

Satirefestival in Gabrovo

Music weeks in Sofia

Festival in the Strandschagebirge

May choir festival in Varna

June Rose Festival in Kazanlak

Chamber Music Festival and Opera Festival in Plovdiv

Folklore

Festival in Russe Festival of Roma

Music in Stara Zagora Music Festival in Varna

August Jazz festival in Bansko

Folklore festival in Burgas

Folklore festival in Koprivschtiza

Folklore festival in Plovdiv

Music festivals in Varna until September

September Chamber music festival in Gabrovo

Puppet theater festival in Plovdiv

Schlager

festival in Sunny Beach Cultural festival in Sozopol

Plum festival in Trojan

17th September: Day of Faith, Hope and Love

October Jazz Festival in Ruse Varna Film Festival October 14: Petkovden (St. Petka's Day)
December December 6th: St. Nicholas

Day December 9th: St. Anne's Day

National customs

The negative is often expressed in Bulgaria by nodding the head.

Shaking your head, on the other hand, can mean approval.

Climate

Travel times

The ideas of what is meant by a particularly favorable travel climate depend on a number of factors. Pure cultural travelers certainly see the climate differently than people who want to spend a pure beach holiday, for example. The state of health or age can also play an important role. Therefore, our travel time recommendations are divided into the following two categories:

For sun seekers

For people who like to enjoy a lot of sun and for whom higher temperatures do not cause any problems, the following seasons are particularly suitable for a stay in the country: Summer.

For people who prefer

a temperate climate People who prefer a temperate climate and lower temperatures should better use the following seasons to stay in Bulgaria: spring, autumn.

Climate table

The following table shows a range of climate data for the country.

Month Average number of rainy days Mean maximum temperatures in (C) Mean minimum temperatures in (C)
January 08 02 -05
February 10 05 -04
March 10 10 at 0
April 12 14 04
May 12 20 10
June 12 24 14
July 10 26 16
August 08 26 14
September 8 20 12
October 10 18 08
November 10 08 02
December 12 04 -02

Bulgaria: Sightseeing

Special places and buildings

Old town of Nessebar

Nessebar's old town is definitely worth a visit. It is also on the UNESCO World Heritage List. (see above)

Daskalovhaus

It is considered the most beautiful secular house in the Bulgarian city of Trjavna and was built in 1804. The building has two intricately carved wooden ceilings.

Arbanassi Village

The architecture of the buildings in the village is unique in Bulgaria and dates from the 16th to 18th centuries. The most impressive house in Arbanassi is the Konstanzalievhaus, a residential and farm building of a trader.

Boschenzi village

The small village near Gabrovo was declared an architectural and historical reserve in 1964. Around a hundred buildings give an almost original impression from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Koprivschtiza village

The village, which is completely under monument protection, has had an almost unchanged appearance since the 18th and 19th centuries.

Schiroka Laka village

Anyone interested in rural architecture should visit this "open-air museum", which is a listed building.

Kordopulovhaus

The house is in Melnik and dates from 1754. It is one of the most beautiful buildings in the country and is richly decorated with wood carvings, stucco work and wall paintings.

Museums and other cultural assets

Archaeological Museum - Burgas

Objects from the 6th millennium to the 15th century are shown here.

National Archaeological Museum - Sofia

It gives a comprehensive overview of the country's history.

Perperikon Fortress - Kardzhali

This medieval fortress covers an area of 12,000 square meters and was built on a sacred place of the Thracians.

House of Humor and Satire - Gabrovo

The house shows countless photos, paintings, writings and costumes from more than 150 countries. The most diverse types of humor are discussed.

Agir Kujumdschioglu's house - Plovdiv

The house is home to the Ethnographic Museum with objects of Bulgarian folk art.

Historical Museum - Kardschali

In the museum you get an insight into the eight thousand year settlement and cultural history of the region.

Historical Museum - Pleven

Around 180,000 exhibits from human history are currently on display here.

Historical Museum - Vraza

It houses a remarkable collection of the settlement history of the region.

Icon Museum - Bansko

The icon museum, which is well worth seeing, is housed in a former convent and shows works of the famous Bansko school.

Etar museum village - near Gabrovo

The village museum provides a comprehensive impression of the architecture, handicrafts and culture of the 18th and 19th centuries.

National History Museum - Sofia

It shows around 500,000 exhibits on the history and culture of the country.

Natural History Museum - Burgas

The museum provides an overview of the flora and fauna of the region.

Ruin of the Roman Theater - Plovdiv

The ruin is still used as a stage and is an impressive backdrop.

Tichoto Gnesdo Castle - Balchik

This is the former summer residence of the Romanian Queen Maria. It dates from the 1920s and was built by Italian architects. The castle is adorned with a small minaret that once encouraged speculation about the Queen's Muslim lover.

Synagogue - Burgas

The former Jewish house of worship now houses an art gallery with works by Bulgarian artists.

Churches, monasteries and mosques

Alexander Nevski Cathedral - Sofia

It was built between 1882 and 1912 and - located on the highest point of the city - with its golden dome is visible from afar. The cathedral was built in honor of the Russian people after the liberation from Ottoman rule. In the basement there is an iconic collection that is worth seeing and contains around 200 works.

Batschkovkloster - near Plovdiv

The very beautiful building from the 11th century spreads out against the most picturesque natural backdrop.

The Nativity of Christ Church - Arbanassi

It was built in the 16th century. The interior of the church is colorfully painted with over 3,500 figures from church history and offers a unique impression.

Archangel Church - Trjavna

This three-aisled hall church from 1819 was built on the site of a previous church that was destroyed by the Ottomans.

Church of Sveta Bogorodiza - Bansko

There are many icons and paintings in the church.

Church of Sveta Sofia - Sofia

This church is the namesake of the city. Its first construction dates back to the 4th century. However, it has been redesigned and expanded several times over the course of history. In the 16th century, the Ottomans converted it into a mosque, which is no longer visible today.

Peter and Paul Church - Veliko Tarnovo

The church dates from the 13th century and was once the scene of the liberation from the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Preobrazhenski Monastery - near Veliko Tarnovo

It was founded in the 14th century. After its destruction by the Ottomans in the 19th century, the monks of the convent took part in the uprisings against Ottoman rule.

Roschenkloster - near Melnik

The monastery was built in the 12th and 13th centuries. Numerous wall paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries adorn the stone and black wood building.

Round Church - Preslav

The Christian rotunda from the 10th century catches the eye despite its ruinous condition. The rotunda measures 11 m in diameter and is divided into twelve niches with twelve massive pillars.

Stefanskirche - Nessebar

It dates from the 10th century, but was rebuilt and expanded in the following centuries. It houses well-preserved wall paintings from the 16th century. The old town of Nessebar is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Trojankloster - Trojan

The third largest monastery in the country (after Rila and Batschkovo) was founded in the 17th century and from the outside looks more like a fortress than a monastery.

Pantocrator Church - Nessebar

The sacred building goes up to the 13th/14th. Century back and is a highlight of Bulgarian medieval architecture. The cross-domed church has three apses and a rectangular tower. The masonry is made from an alternation of brick and natural stone. The old town of Nessebar is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Tombulmosque - Shumen

It is considered the most beautiful monument from the time of the Ottoman rule and dates back to 1744.

Archeology

Graves from the 5th millennium BC Chr.

Approximately 294 graves west of Varna included alongside skeletons and grave goods of the oldest gold treasure in the world with over 3,000 objects.

Ruins of the former Bulgarian capital Pliska

North of Shumen are the ruins of the city of Pliska. The city was founded in 681 and destroyed by Byzantium in 811. Remnants of the foundation give an impression of the former city.

Ruins of the Roman thermal baths

You can admire them in Varna and date from the 2nd to 4th centuries. The ruins give a good impression of the bath culture of the ancient Romans.

Natural beauties

Batscho-Kiro Cave - near Gabrovo

This cave is a large system of corridors and halls with impressive stone formations. Finds from the Stone Age show that people found shelter there even then.

Mountains of the Rhodope Mountains

This is another very beautiful nature area with 15 nature reserves.

Iscar breakthrough - near Vraza This breakthrough is

between 60 and 200 meters high and between 200 and 500 meters long. The rocky cliffs offer a paradise for climbing fans.

Kamchija Biosphere Reserve - near Varna

The large swamp area is under nature protection.

Magura Cave - near Vidin

It is one of the most historically important of its kind in Bulgaria. The cave was once a refuge for people 100,000 to 40,000 years ago. Important rock paintings testify to the society of that time.

Marine Park - Varna

It houses a small zoo, a natural history museum and an aquarium.

Pirin Mountains Nature Reserve

It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 and includes a spectacular mountain and peaks landscape. (see above)

Rila Mountains

These are the highest mountains on the Balkan Peninsula with an altitude of up to 3,000 m.

Stone forest - near Varna

This is a geological natural phenomenon. Numerous stone pillars about 3 m thick and 5 m high protrude from the ground. They originated around 50 million years ago.

Vitosha Mountains

It is located near Sofia and is a popular winter sports area.

Wild landscape of Belogradchik

The landscape is particularly impressive with its red rock formations and the huge forest. A fascinating natural spectacle!

Danube

The Danube is the longest river in Bulgaria, which forms the border with Romania over a length of around 500 km.

The beginning of the Danube is at Donaueschingen, where the Brigach and the Breg together and from there form the Danube. At 48 km, the Breg is the longer of the two source rivers and rises at an altitude of 1,078 m near the Martinskapelle near Furtwangen in the southern Black Forest. From here to the mouth of the Danube in the Black Sea, its length is 2,888 km. The second source river, the Brigach, has its source in the Brigach Valley near St. Gallen, also in the southern Black Forest. It is 42.7 km long to the confluence. Its length to the Austrian border is 687 km. The Danube then flows through Austria (357 km), Slovakia (172 km), Hungary (417 km), Serbia (587) and Romania (1,075). For the following countries, the Danube forms the border with its neighbors over a length of around 1,070 km as a border river, these are: Croatia (border with Serbia for about 135 km), Bulgaria (border with Romania), Moldova (border with Romania for only about 570 m) and Ukraine (border with Romania). It flows into the Black Sea in Romania in an approx. 8,000 km² large Dalta. The following larger cities are located on the Danube, in alphabetical order.

City Country Population
Belgrade Serbia
Brăila Romania
Bratislava Slovakia
Budapest Hungary
Galaţi Romania
Ingolstadt Germany
Linz Austria
Novi Sad Serbia
Passau Germany
regensburg Germany
Russian Bulgaria
Ulm Germany
Vienna Austria

The following major or well-known rivers flow into the Danube:

Right tributaries Left tributaries
Outside Altmuehl
Enns blue
Iller Ilz
Inn Camp
Isar March
Iskar Naab
Lech Olt
Leitha Pru
Morava rain
Raab Sere
Crack Tisza
Save Vah
Morava Wörnitz

s: UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Boyana Church in Sofia (1979)

Boyana Church is located in the medieval Boyana fortress not far from Sofia.

This Orthodox church combines three churches, the oldest part being a small cross-domed church from the 11th century.

In 1259, a two-story building was erected on its western wall, which served as the chapel of the founder (Sebastokrator Kalojan) and his family.

A new vestibule was last built in 1882, but it is of no great architectural importance. However, the church has become famous above all for its well-preserved frescoes, which come from three different epochs, namely from the 11th, 13th and 14th centuries. The best known date from the year 1259. These paintings show numerous saints on the walls in a very human way.

Jesus is depicted and 18 scenes depict the life of St. Nicholas.

The oldest depiction of St. Ivan Rilski can also be admired here.

The church complex was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979.

Rock relief of the rider of Madara (1979)

This relief, probably from the 7th century AD, is located on the rock plateau Madara on an approximately 100 meter high cliff near the village of Madara in the northeast of the country.

An important place of worship of the First Bulgarian Empire was located here.

On the relief you can see a rider fighting a lion - at a height of 23 m above the ground. A dog can be recognized as the rider's companion. Of great interest are the inscriptions on stone near the relief, in which the rulers of the 8th and 9th centuries - the khans - report on their triumphs against Byzantium.

The rock relief was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979

Rock Churches of Ivanovo (Iwanowo) (1979)

The churches are located in a cave system - the first monk cells were built in the 12th century. The caves were created in the rocks on the bank of the Rusensky Lom River. They are a complex of Orthodox churches, chapels and monastery rooms near the eponymous village of Iwanowo - around 20 km southwest of the city of Ruse.

The religious center of the complex is probably the rock church "Peschterata".

The church has a length of 16 m, a width of 4 m and a height of 2.15 m and is therefore considered to be very small. In the frescoes of the church, motifs from the life of old Syrian Christian hermits are depicted, but also "The betrayal of Judas" or "Rauten bring myrrh"

The rock-hewn churches were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979

Thracian tomb of Kazanlak (1979)

The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak is located near the ancient Thracian city of Seuthopolis in central Bulgaria. It is a so-called "beehive grave" in the middle of a Thracian necropolis. On the walls of the burial chamber are wall paintings from the 4th century BC. On which a funeral service can be seen, among other things.

The Thracian Tomb was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979.

Rila Monastery (1983)

This monastery near Rila is the symbol of the Orthodox religion in Bulgaria and is an important place of pilgrimage. It is located approx. 125 km south of Sofia and covers an area of around 8,800 m².

The beginnings of the monastery date back to the 10th century, but the monastery experienced its heyday in the 14th century. The Chreljo Tower in the inner courtyard of the complex was built between 1333 and 1334 and named after its founder, the feudal lord Chreljo Dragolow.

Nearby was a smaller single-nave church from 1332 that was looted and burned down in the 18th century. A deed of gift from the last Bulgarian tsar - Ivan Schischman () - from 1378 has been preserved. After the bones of Saint Ivan Rilski () were brought here from Tarnowo in 1469, the monastery began to boom.

In the years 1817–1848, during the national awakening of the Bulgarians, intensive construction work took place in the monastery complex. The old church was demolished and replaced by the monastery church "Sweta Bogorodiza".

The monastery was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983.

Pirin National Park (1983)

The park is located in the extreme southwest of the country and is located in the mountains of the same name.

The area is approx. 40,000 ha = 400 km².

The park also includes the 2,914 m high Wichren - the highest mountain peak in the Pirin Mountains. The park is known for its 175 funnel lakes, of which Lake Popowi is the largest with an area of 12.4 hectares.

Almost 80% of the park is covered with forest.

You can find hornbeams, white pines, black pines, mountain pines and junipers in the forest.

The "European Natural Heritage" foundation (Euronatur) is running a project to protect wolves in the park. Bears, deer, foxes, wild cats and eagles also live here.

The national park was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983. In 2010, this world natural heritage was expanded to include a high mountain area.

Old town of Nessebar (1983)

The city of Nessebar is located near Burgas on the Black Sea on a picturesque rocky peninsula.

The old town of Nessebar was set up as an open-air museum for urban architecture.

The old town is surrounded by a Byzantine fortress wall.

The first settlers of the city were Thracians, who lived here 3 millennia BC. Already settled. In the 6th century BC The Greeks built a new city on the foundations of the former Thracian city. Nesebar became an important trading center in the Black Sea region and the eastern Mediterranean. In 72 BC The city was conquered by the Romans, the supremacy in the Mediterranean area was lost and the city became meaningless.

It was not until the 7th century AD that the city regained its reputation.

The fortifications were expanded, basilicas and churches were built and Nessebar became a naval base. One of the city's sights is the fortress wall from the 4th and 5th centuries, which was built on the foundations of the Hellenistic city of the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Was built.

You can also find buildings from the time of the Bulgarian rebirth in the 18th and 19th centuries, churches that survived Turkish rule, restored windmills, the ruins of the "Old Metropolitan Church" from the 5th/6th centuries. Century, the Johanes Aliturgetos Church above the sea, a cross-domed building built in the 14th century and the basilica by the sea.

The houses were built in a style known as the Black Sea style.

The ground floor consists of thick stone walls, while the floors above are made of wood.

The old town was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983

Srebarna Biosphere Reserve (1983)

The Srebarna Biosphere Reserve is located in the northeast of the country on the Danube and has a total area of approx. 9 km².

The area is particularly important for migratory birds because they can overwinter here.

It is also a breeding and nesting place for almost 100 different bird species.

The protected area was endangered by the construction of a dam above the Danube, the area was no longer flooded and threatened to dry out. Pelicans were particularly endangered. Different species of reptiles and amphibians live here.

The water of the Srebarna lake has an area of approx. 1 km², the reed area about 4 km², there are also grass areas and swamps on and in which numerous birds such as herons, red-necked geese, cormorants and others live.

The biosphere reserve was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983

Thracian tomb of Sveshtari (1985)

The Thracian grave of Sveshtari is located near Isperich - about 40 km northeast of Razgrad in the northeast of the country. It wasn't discovered until 1982.

It dates from the 3rd century BC. This grave complex belongs to a large Thracian necropolis, which has only been partially excavated so far. Sculptures were found there that served as columns or pillars and that bear human and vegetable features. The technical term in architecture for these sculptures is caryatids.

The tomb was built from limestone blocks without any binding agents. The facility consists of a total of three rooms, which are covered with cylinder-shaped semicircular arches. The central burial chamber has a height of around 4.5 m

The Thracian Tomb was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.

Old beech forests and primeval beech forests (2017)

The ancient beech forests of the Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia) and other regions of Europe were added to the list of UNESCO natural heritage sites in 2007.

The Carpathian Mountains extend primarily over Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania.

In 2011 the natural heritage was expanded to include five beech forest areas in Germany. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is only native to Europe and is of particular importance for the European temperate deciduous forests.

In July 2017, at the UNESCO meeting in Krakow in Poland, the world heritage was expanded by 63 areas in 10 countries, namely in Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Croatia, Austria, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and the Ukraine.

Africa

Algeria Angola
Benin Botswana
Burkina Faso Burundi
Cameroon Canary Islands
Cape Verde Central African Republic
Chad Comoros
D.R. Congo Djibouti
Egypt Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea Ethiopia
Gabon Gambia
Ghana Guinea
Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Kenya Lesotho
Liberia Libya
Madagascar Malawi
Mali Mauritania
Mauritius Morocco
Mozambique Namibia
Niger Nigeria
Reunion Republic of the Congo
Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal Seychelles
Sierra Leone Somalia
South Africa South Sudan
Sudan Suriname
Swaziland Tanzania
Togo Tunisia
Uganda Zambia
Zimbabwe  

Asia

Afghanistan Armenia
Azerbaijan Bahrain
Bangladesh Bhutan
Brunei Cambodia
China Cyprus
East Timor Georgia
Hong Kong India
Indonesia Iran
Iraq Israel
Japan Jordan
Kazakhstan Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan Laos
Lebanon Macau
Malaysia Maldives
Mongolia Myanmar
Nepal North Korea
Oman Pakistan
Palestine Philippines
Qatar Saudi Arabia
Singapore South Korea
Sri Lanka Syria
Taiwan Tajikistan
Thailand Turkey
Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates
Uzbekistan Vietnam
Yemen  

Europe

Aland Albania
Andorra Austria
Belarus Belgium
Bulgaria Croatia
Czech Republic Denmark
Estonia Finland
France Germany
Greece Hungary
Iceland Ireland
Italy Kosovo
Latvia Liechtenstein
Lithuania Luxembourg
Macedonia Malta
Moldova Monaco
Montenegro Netherlands
Norway Poland
Portugal Romania
Russia San Marino
Serbia Slovakia
Slovenia Spain
Sweden Switzerland
Ukraine Vatican City

South America

Argentina Bolivia
Brazil Chile
Colombia French Guiana
Guyana Nicaragua
Paraguay Peru
Uruguay Venezuela

Central America

Aruba Antigua and Barbuda
Bahamas Barbados
Belize Bosnia and Herzegovina
Cuba British Virgin Islands
Costa Rica Curacao
Dominica Dominican Republic
Ecuador El Salvador
Guadeloupe Guatemala
Haiti Honduras
Jamaica Martinique
Montserrat Panama
Puerto Rico Saba
  Trinidad and Tobago

North America

Canada Greenland
Mexico United States

Oceania

American Samoa Australia
Cook Islands Easter Island
Falkland Islands Fiji
French Polynesia Guam
Kiribati Marshall Islands
Micronesia Nauru
New Caledonia New Zealand
Niue Northern Mariana Islands
Palau Pitcairn
Samoa Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands Tokelau
Tonga Tuvalu
Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna

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