Azerbaijan Holidays, Events, Climate and Sightseeing

Azerbaijan: Holidays and national customs

Public holidays

Date Holiday
January 1st and 2 New year celebration
February March Novruz Bayramy(Islamic New Year)
February March April Kurban Bayram(Festival of sacrifice)
8th of March International Women’s Day
March 20th and 21 national spring festival
1st of May Labor Day
May 9 day of the victory
28th of May day of the Republic
15th June National Salvation Day
June 26 Armed Forces Day
October 18 Independence day
November December Ramazan Bayram(End of ramadan)
November 12 Constitution Day
November 17 National Revival Day
December 31 Solidarity day

Source: Countryaah – Azerbaijan Holidays

The dates for the Islamic holidays are calculated according to the lunar calendar and therefore shift every year. During the fasting month of Ramadan, which precedes the festival day Ramazan Bayram, Muslims do not eat during the day, but only after sunset. Many restaurants are therefore closed during the day. The Ramazan Bayram and Kurban Bayram festivals usually last two days. The weekly rest day is Sunday.

National customs

For guests in an Islamic country, consideration for the local customs is required. Women in particular should pay attention to decent clothing. Beach clothing outside the bathing zone is taboo, and long pants are also recommended for men outside the hotel zones.

Azerbaijan: climate

Travel times

The ideas of what is meant by a particularly favorable travel climate depend on a number of factors. Pure cultural travelers certainly see the climate differently than people who want to spend a pure beach holiday, for example. The state of health or age can also play an important role.

June and September are particularly recommended for people who like to enjoy a lot of sunshine and who do not suffer from higher temperatures for a stay in Azerbaijan.

People who prefer a more moderate climate and lower temperatures should better use the months of April, May and October for a stay in Azerbaijan.

Climate table

The following climate table only shows mean values obtained over longer periods of time. Therefore, the values only provide a general overview of the climatic conditions in Azerbaijan and therefore only allow very limited statements about the weather to be expected.

Month Average number of rainy days Mean maximum temperatures in (°C) Mean minimum temperatures in (°C)
January 06-08 03-05 at 0
February 06-08 03-05 at 0
March 07-09 09-11 04-06
April 12-14 14-16 09-11
May 11-13 19-21 14-16
June 10-12 26-28 19-21
July 07-09 27-29 19-21
August 07-09 23-25 22-24
September 06-08 21-23 17-19
October 06-08 17-19 9-11
November 06-08 09-11 4-6
December 06-08 03-05 at 0


  • Presents the way that AZ stands for the nation of Azerbaijan as a two-letter acronym.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Walled part of Baku with Shirwan Shah Palace and Maiden’s Tower (2000)

The walled part of the city minarets and palaces are characterized by influences of different cultures – Persian, Zoroastrian, Sassanid, Ottoman and Russian.

The walled part of Baku was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2000

Rock paintings and cultural landscape of Gobustan (Qobustan) (2007)

The Qobustan National Park is a state historical and artistic reserve and is located near the village of Qobustan, approx. 450 km southwest of Baku.

The national park covers an area of 44 km².

He is famous for his Stone Age rock carvings, which were only discovered in 1930.

In 1966 this area was declared a national park and in 2007 the sites of rock carvings were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Old town of Sheki with the Khan Palace (2019)

The city of Sheki (Sheki) has around 65,000 residents and is located in the northwest of the country. The Khan Palace of Sheki used to be the summer residence of the Khans of Sheki and was built in 1797 under Khan Muhammed Hassan in the Persian style.

But in the first half of the 19th century the palace was in serious disrepair, but was restored from 1850 under the governor of the Caucasus, Prince Mikhail Semjonowitsch Vorontsov (1782-1856). The palace lays within the citadel of the city and is surrounded by castle walls. The old town of Sheki with the Khan Palace was inscribed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2019.

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

The Republic of Nakhchivan (Naxçıvan) with the capital of the same name officially belongs to Azerbaijan. However, it has its own constitution and parliament. The capital has around 65,000 residents.

The republic covers an area of 5,500 km² – with around 400,000 residents. The republic is surrounded by Iran and Armenia. There is also a very small border with Turkey of approx. 11 km.

The special position as an exclave separate from the heartland of Azerbaijan makes the region politically very interesting.

But visitors will also find the remains of ancient cities, fortifications, towers and tombs.

In the capital of the republic, for example, there is the Momine Khatun mausoleum, a tomb of the first wife of the Atabeg of Azerbaijan, Muhammed Dschehan Pahlevi.

The tomb was built in the 12th century by the builder Ajemi ibn Abubekr. The mausoleum of the general Jussuf ibn Kusejir, located in the republic, was also designed by the builder in 1162.



The current capital of the country lies in a wide bay on the west bank of the Caspian Sea on the Abseron Peninsula. It includes several islands and islands on supports, so-called oil rocks. Baku was first mentioned in a document in the 2nd century.

In the historical part, the ruins of the fortress wall, several minarets, the bazaar and baths from the 15th century have been preserved. Another historical attraction is the caravanserai.

A cable car leads from Primorski Boulevard to the hilltop city park, from which there is an excellent view.

The walled part of Baku with the Shirwan Shah Palace and the Maiden’s Tower (Maiden’s Tower) was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2000.

The city has around 2.1 million residents – with an area of 2,130 km²


Mingachewir is the fourth largest city in Azerbaijan with around 100,000 residents. Because of the local hydroelectric power station, the city is also known as the “City of Lights”.

It has its current appearance, not least because of the use of German prisoners of war.


The ancient city of Shamakhi (Şamaxı) has been documented since the fifth century BC. Inhabited. The city was the capital of the Shirvan Empire from the 9th to the 17th century. The

fortress Gulistan from the 11th century and the mausoleum of Addy-Gyumbez with its seven domes are impressive.

Despite the prevailing Islam, there is a flourishing wine production here. Precious carpets are also made here. Because of the many writers born here,

Shamakhi is also known as the “city of literature”. In the not too far away Pirkuli region you can ski and snowboard.


According to archaeological finds, the city, located in the Caucasus, was already 2,500 BC. Settled. In the once important trading center there are still several historical bazaars and caravanserais.

The local summer palace is particularly worth seeing.

Special places

Baku Boulevard

This boulevard in Baku is a 3 km long promenade that was founded in 1909 and runs along the Caspian Sea.

Its beginnings go back to time. when the oil barons of the time had built their villas here in Baku along the shores of the Caspian Sea. was artificially built inch by inch.

The boulevard begins at National Flag Square and ends at Freedom Square.

Baku Old Town

The walled part of Baku Old Town was, as already mentioned, inscribed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2000.

Fountain Square in Baku

Fountain Square is located in downtown Baku and extends from Istiglaliyyat Street through Nizami Street to Baku Boulevard. There are more than a dozen fountains in the square.

Not least because of this, the square is a meeting place for Baku residents – especially in the evenings and on weekends. You will also find numerous boutiques, restaurants, shops and hotels here.

Numerous festivals, shows and other events are held in the square.

National Flag Square

The National Flag Center covers an area of 60 ha = 600,000 m². In the square there is a 162 m high flagpole with a flag of Azerbaijan, which has a size of 70 by 35 m – an area of 2,450 m².

The inauguration of the square with the flag took place on September 1st, 2010. The square borders the Caspian Sea.

Neftchiler Avenue

Baku AZ5000


Square The Freedom Square (Azadliq Azadliq) is the main square of Baku with an area of 17 ha = 170,000 m². The government building of the country is located on the square.

Special buildings and structures

Bakı Kristal Zalı

Die (Christal Hall) is a multifunctional event arena that was inaugurated on April 16, 2012. The hall offers space for around 20,000 spectators.

The plans for the building come from the German architecture firm “Gerkan, Marg and Partner (gmp)”.

The hall gained international fame as the venue for the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in May 2012.



Richard Sorge Memorial

Richard Sorge (1895-1944) was born on October 4th in Baku. His father was a German engineer and his mother Russian. In 18998 the family moved to Berlin.

He spied for the Soviet secret service in Germany as well as in Japan. However, there he was exposed and hanged in Tokyo on November 7, 1944.

Zorge Park


Azeri TV tower

The Baku TV tower is 310 meters high. The tower was completed in 1996. At a height of 175 m, the tower has a viewing platform and a revolving restaurant opened in 2008.

The tower has been illuminated in the dark since 2004 – in colors that do justice to the occasion.

Flame Tower s

The Flame Tower complex is a high-rise complex in Baku consisting of three towers with a height of 190 m.

The buildings were completed in April 2012. They are used as hotels, offices and residential complexes.

The Flame Towers can be reached in around three minutes using the funicular from the boulevard by the sea


Tower This tower – also known as the Maiden’s Tower – is called “Kiz Kulesi” by the locals. It originated as early as the 12th century after Christ.

The tower is located in the walled old town of Baku and, along with the Shirwan Shah Palace, has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.


The caravanserai in Baku used to be accommodation for travelers with their animals. Nowadays the overgrown inner courtyard impresses with its wonderful wall paintings.

Visitors to the caravanserai can enjoy dishes of Azerbaijani cuisine here, such as shashlik, plov and lavash – a pie with nuts

Kys Kalassy Tower

This tower was built over old buildings from the 7th and 6th centuries BC in the course of the 12th century – when the city walls of Baku were being built.

Together with the old town and a number of buildings there, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000. Eddi-Gümbes

Royal Mausoleum

In the Eddi-Gümbes mausoleum in Shamakhi (Şamaxı) with its seven domes are the tombs of the Khans of Shirvan.


Railway Baku’s funicular railway travels up to the Flame Towers and the Parliament building in just three minutes. The cable car was completely renovated by a Swiss company before the start of the European Song Contest.

The cable car consists of two wagons that cover the 432 long incline with a height difference of 91 m within three minutes . Each car can carry 40 people – with 28 seats and 12 standing places.

City walls

The city walls as protective walls of the city date from the 12th century. They include the old town of Baku.

The Kys Kalassy Tower, also from this period, was built over old buildings from the 7th and 6th centuries BC.

Villa Petrolea in Baku

This house was built between 1884 and 1885 by Robert (1829-1896) and Ludvig (1831-1888) Nobel, the two older brothers of the founder of the Nobel Prize – Alfred Nobel (1833-1896).

It was the first museum of the Nobel family in the world.

In 1879 the two brothers founded the “Baku Nobel Oil Company” in which Alfred Nobel also owned shares.

In 1888, Emanuel Nobel (1859-1932), the son of Ludwig Nobel, took over management of the company at the age of 29.

After the Soviets came to power and the entire property was expropriated, he fled adventurous ways to Sweden in 1919, where he died in 1932 at the age of 73.

After that, the villa was used, among other things, for the army as accommodation and was used as a children’s home – but it was increasingly deteriorating.

The reopening of the extensively restored villa took place on April 25, 2005 in the presence of 25 members of the Nobel family.

Nowadays the Nobel Museum and a conference hall are located on the ground floor of the villa – while the “Baku Nobel Oil Club” is located above.

Baku Nobel Heritage Fund (BNHF)

Nobel Avenue (in Nizami Park)


Email: [email protected]


Bathhouses played and still play a major role in Azerbaijan. They were not only used for physical cleansing and relaxation but were and are also a place of communication and distraction.

The bathhouses of the rulers were particularly magnificent and were often part of the palace complex. But they were also built for the residents of the city – often in their center.

Bathhouses in the Shirvanshakh Palace

The bathhouses in the Shirvanshakh Palace consisted of 26 buildings that were uncovered during excavations in 1939. All of these magnificent buildings were crowned by a dome.

The bathhouses of the palace were heated with a system of channels under the floor – similar to a type of floor heating

Gadzhi Gaib Bath House

This bath house is located in the old town of Baku opposite the Maiden (Girls) Tower. It was probably built here in the 15th century.

Like the bathhouses in the Shirvanshakh Palace, it was heated with a system of channels under the floor, like floor heating.

Aga Mikail Bath House

The Aga Mikail Bath House was built in the 18th century. It was built by Skemakhi’s chief Gadzhi Aga Mikail. The area in which the bathhouse is located is also known as “Rubbers’ Quartier”.

Kasum bek bath house

The Kasum bek bath house in Baku was built in the 17th century. It is located near the Salyan Gate. This gate is one of the old city gates and was built as a dome-like arch.

The bath house was often referred to as the “Sweet Bath House” because the tea served here is served together with sweets.

Mosques and temples

Bibi Heybat Mosque

The predecessor of today’s mosque, built in the 13th century according to a design by the architect Mahmud ibn Saad and named after the sister of the seventh Shiite Imam Ali.

In 1934, however, it was demolished during the Stalin era and rebuilt after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s according to plans by the architect Fachraddin Miralay.

Heydär Äliyev, who was President of Azerbaijan at the time, solemnly returned the mosque to its previous purpose on July 11, 1997.

Blue Mosque in Baku

The mosque (also known as Ajdar Bey Mosque) got its name because of its bright blue dome. The church was built between 1912 and 1913 according to plans by Haji Ibrahim Bey Ajdar Ashurbeyov.

The aim at the time was to build a common place of worship here for Sunnis and Shiites. Even during the Stalinist era, the mosque remained open to the faithful – together with the Taza Pir mosque in Amirjan.

The mosque is located in the middle of the old town of Baku.

Səməd Vurğun

Bakı (Baku)

Mohammed Mosque in Baku

The Mohammed Mosque in Baku was built between 1078 and 1079 under the direction of the builder Muhammed ibn Abubek.

The building with which Synyk-kala minaret belongs is the oldest of its kind in Azerbaijan.

The minaret was probably also used as a watchtower until the 13th century.

Juma Mosque in Shamakhi

The Juma Mosque in Shamakhi (Şamaxı) dates from the 10th century. The city has been known to have been around since the fifth century BC. Inhabited.

It was the capital of the Shirvan Empire from the 9th to the 17th century. The

fortress Gulistan from the 11th century and the mausoleum of Addy-Gyumbez with its seven domes are impressive.

Shah mosque

The Shah Mosque is a small mosque and part of the ensemble of the Palace of the Shirvan Shahs. It was built from 1441 to 1442 in the lower courtyard of the palace.

The architecture of the mosque is characterized by its well thought-out proportions, the circumference of the portals and the dome and the 22 m high minaret.

Synagogue in Baku

A new synagogue was opened in Baku in March 2003 – in a predominantly Muslim state. In total there are three Jewish houses of worship in Baku – two in Quba and one in Oghuz.

The newest synagogue, which opened in April 2011 and was designed by the architect Alexander Gerber, is located on Mirzagha Aliyev Street.


Eddi-Gümbes Royal Mausoleum

In the Eddi-Gümbes mausoleum in Shamakhi (Şamaxı) with its seven domes are the tombs of the Khans of Shirvan.

Palaces, castles and fortress ruins

Palace of Shirvan

The Palace of the Khans of Shirvan (Shirvan Shah Palace) in Baku was built in the 15th century and is considered a pearl of Azerbaijani architecture.

The city’s history museum is located in the palace.

The palace is located in the walled old town of Baku and has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.

Zamkovskaya Side-street 76


Summer Palace (Khan Palace) in Sheki

The Khan Palace of Sheki (Şəki) is the former summer residence of the Khans of Sheki, which – surrounded by castle walls – is located in the citadel of the city of Sheki.

The palace is the remainder of an earlier larger complex. It was built by order of Khan Muhammed Hassan in 1797. In the first half of the 19th century the palace was in serious disrepair, but from 1850 Prince Mikhail Ssemenowitsch Vorontsov had the summer palace renovated. The prince was the local governor of Caucasia.

You can find valuable frescoes here.

Castles on the Absheron Peninsula (Abşeron)

The buildings were built in the 14th century by the Shahs of Shirvan to defend against attacks from the sea.

The fortresses of Ramana, Nardaran and Mardkyany are particularly worth seeing.

The Absheron Peninsula on the Caspian Sea has a length of around 60 km. The capital Baku is located on the peninsula.

Shamil fortress ruins in Sakataly

The fortress ruins in Sakataly (Zaqatala) were built during the 1830s by Russian occupation forces during the Caucasus War to defend the city against rebels.

Fighting between Russians and Imam Shamil (1797-1871) took place here in the 1850s.

Imam Shamil was a religious-political leader (Imam) of the Muslim (mountain) peoples of Dagestan and Chechnya between 1834 and 1859 and led their resistance against the Russian conquerors of the Northeast Caucasus.

It should also be mentioned that the mutinous crews of the armored cruiser Potemkin from 1905 were imprisoned here.

The monument to one of the mutineers is near the fortress in Heydar Aliyev Park.

Gulistan Fortress in Schemacha

The origins of the Gulistan Fortress in Schemacha (Shamakhi, Şamaxı) date back to the 10th century and were built to protect against attacks by the Persians and Arabs.

The city has been hit by a number of major earthquakes over the centuries, with that of 1667 being the worst, killing approximately 80,000.

Until the earthquake of 1859, Şamaxı was the capital of the province of the same name – after that it became Baku, while Şamaxı fell into disrepair.

The fortress was rebuilt in the course of the 19th century and is now in quite good condition

Special museums and cultural institutions

Archaeological and Ethnographic Museum

Located in the Qala district of Baku, the museum exhibits over 216 monuments from the history of the people of the Absheron Peninsula on an open area of 1.5 ha = 15,000 m². Among them are reconstructed houses and scenes from life back then. Petroglyphs (rock carvings) from the Bronze and Stone Ages or old handicrafts can also be viewed here.

Mira St., 5 | Qala district


Geological Museum in Baku

The museum presents a large number of artefacts related to the geology and minerals of the country.

I. Gutgaschenli Street 95


Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center

The Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center was built according to plans by the Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid. It was named in honor of Heydar Aliyev (), who was the country’s president from 1993 to 2003.

The inauguration took place on May 10, 2012 in the presence of the incumbent President Ilham Aliyev ().

The building stands out with its flowing and curved lines and does not have any (sharp) edges.

The building complex is intended as the cultural center of Baku. In the center you will find a conference hall, a gallery and a museum.

1 Heydər Əliyev prospekti

(Heydar Aliyev Prospect)

Bakı (Baku) AZ1033

Mingachewir Historical Museum The Mingachewir Historical Museum

opened in 1968. The museum is divided into a Martyrs Memorial and an Independence Museum.

There are around 15,000 exhibits in the museum.

Taghiyew History Museum

The Taghiyew (Taghiyeva) Museum in Baku introduces the museum visitor to the history of the country with the help of numerous exhibits.

4 Taghiyew Street


Mugham Center (Center)

Center for Art and Music of Azerbaijan. Mugham is a special form of music from Azerbaijan. Mugham festivals, concerts and song recitals take place here.

The modern-style center has an area of 7,500 m². The inauguration took place in December 2008.

The center’s concert hall can seat 350 people. The center also has a club, restaurant, reading rooms and recording studios.

Neftchiler Avenue 9

Baku AZ400

Nizami Literature

Museum The Baku Literature Museum takes its name from the great writer Nizami (1141-1209), who lived in Ganja, in what is now Azerbaijan, in the 12th century.

The country is now trying to turn him into a national writer of Azerbaijan.

Ictiglalijet St, 53


Museum of Modern Art

The museum was inaugurated in March 2009 in the presence of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliev and the General Director of UNESCO Kōichirō Matsuura.

Over 800 works of over 800 works by painters and sculptors from Azerbaijan are exhibited here – mainly in the avant-garde style.

There is also a children’s art room, library, video room, restaurant and café.

5 Yusuph Safarov

Baku, AZ1025

Olympic Museum

According to its name, visitors to the MUseum in Baku will find numerous references to the history of the Olympic Games

5 Olimpiyskaya Street


E-Mmail: [email protected]

Carpet and Arts

and Crafts Museum in Baku The Carpet and Arts and Crafts Museum in Baku has a collection of precious Azerbaijani carpets and other knots and weavings.

But you can also see embroidery, ceramics, wood and bone carvings and sculptures here.

Azerbaijan Independence

Museum This museum is located in the capital Baku and displays references to the struggles for independence in the country .

Neftchilar, 123A, Sabail

Baku, AZ1000

Theaters and opera houses

There are a large number of theaters and opera houses in Azerbaijan. Since the performances are usually held in Russian or Azerbaijani, and are therefore difficult to understand by German-speaking visitors, the houses are only presented here, but not discussed in more detail. The houses in alphabetical order:

  • Community theater
  • Baku Jazz Center
  • Chamber orchestra alongside the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Baku Marionette Theater
  • National Academic Drama Theater of Azerbaijan
  • Pantomime theater
  • Russian Drama Theater of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater
  • Azerbaijan State Song Theater in honor of Reşid Behbudov
  • State Puppet Theater of Azerbaijan
  • State Musical Comedy Theater of Azerbaijan
  • State Youth Theater of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Orchestra
  • Theater for Young Audiences of Azerbaijan
  • “Mugam” theater for folk music of Azerbaijan
  • “Üns” theater
  • Yuğ Theater

Natural beauties

Quobustan National Park

The Quobustan National Park is a state historical and artistic reserve. The national park, established in 1966, is located near the village of Qobustan – approx. 50 km southwest of the center of Baku.

The Stone Age rock carvings, which were discovered in the 1930s, are particularly worth seeing. The national park covers an area of approx. 44 km².

In 2007, the rock carvings were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Nazimi Park

Villa Petrolea is located in Nazimi Park (see above for details). The former garden of Villa Petrolea is now partly owned by the private Baku Nobel Fund and is therefore only partly accessible to the public.

Natural gas fire on Absheron

The burning gases from the earth on the Abseron peninsula were already a place of pilgrimage for Indian fire worshipers in the 18th century and dance rituals of Zoroastrian fire worship are still held here today.

However, the gas leaks dried up due to tectonic shifts around the middle of the 19th century. A Hindu temple used to stand here, but it was destroyed by the invading Muslims.

But it was rebuilt between 1713 and 1810.

Artificial fires burn in the tepel.

The Absheron Peninsula on the Caspian Sea has a length of around 60 km. The capital Baku is located on the peninsula.

Kobustan Nature Reserve

The unique volcanic landscape with its prehistoric rock paintings is about 70 km south of Baku. There are over 4,000 Neolithic rock engravings on an area of around 100 km², the age of which is estimated to be up to 10,000 years.

Hunting scenes and animals as well as ritual dances and religious ceremonies are shown.

Nature reserve on the Absheron Peninsula

The nature reserve is located at the tip of the Absheron Peninsula


City Park To visit Baku City Park, one has to take a cable car from Primorsky Boulevard up the hill.

From the park on the hill you have a fantastic view of the city.

Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest inland lake in the world. With an area of 386,400 km² and a water volume of 78,700 km³, it also has the largest fresh water reserves in the world. Its main tributaries are the Volga, Urals, Kura, and Terek.

The lake has no natural drains worth mentioning, but there is a navigable connection to the Black Sea via the Volga, the Volga-Don Canal, the Don, the Sea of Azov – a tributary of the Black Sea and the Kerch Strait.

In addition to Azerbaijan in the west of the lake, Turkmenistan in the east, Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the north and Russia also in the north border the Caspian Sea.

The greatest depth under the water surface is around 1,025 m – with an average depth of 185 m.

The sea lies roughly in a north-south direction and has a length of around 1,200 km, with a maximum width in the southern part of around 425 km.

The most famous city on the Caspian Sea is certainly Baku – the capital of Azerbaijan.

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