Italy Between 2000 and 2021 Part II

In 2009, according to, the process of merging the center-right formations was completed in the confluence of Alleanza Nazionale and Forza Italia in the Popolo della Libertà party (PdL). The primary object of the government action was the measures to deal with the fallout at national level of the global economic and financial crisis, following which there is a decline in GDP of more than 5%, with an unemployment rate rising to 8 %. In 2010, the co-founder of the Popolo della Libertà G. Fini left the party and then founded a new one, Future and freedom for Italy, which passed to the opposition. In November 2011, after the vote in the Chamber of Deputies on the state accounts, approved only thanks to the abstention of the opposition, having acknowledged the difficulties of the majority and due to the serious moment of financial and economic, internal and international crisis, Berlusconi resigned from the office of Prime Minister, a position assumed by the economist M. Monti who formed a new executive to deal with the crisis political and economic in place. In the first phase of his government, Monti spent his authority in Europe, having been Commissioner for competition and the internal market, to face the international economic crisis, to restore credibility to Italy, lower the spread and avoid risk default. In December 2011, the government launched the so-called “save-Italy decree”, a package of urgent measures to ensure financial stability, growth, equity, asking all citizens to make an effort, including taxation, to bring public accounts back under control. In the second phase, called “Grow-Italy”, the government approved a package of structural reforms for growth, which aim to remove two constraints: insufficient competition on the markets and inadequate infrastructures. The series of reforms undertaken should have made it possible in the short term to steer the national economy out of the recessionary spiral and possibly, in the medium / long term, to bring it into line with the growth rates of European and international partners. In December of 2012 Monti resigned at the end of the approval of the stability law. The decision has come after a speech in the Chamber of Deputies by the secretary of the PDL, Angelino Alfano, strongly critical of the government’s economic policy. In the same month, Monti presented his candidacy for the general elections of the following year to lead a new centrist coalition called Con Monti for Italy in the Senate and a Civic Choice list – Con Monti for Italy together with the lists of ‘UDC and FLI in the Chamber of Deputies. In the 2013 political elections, the center-right coalition, with the PdL and the Lega, obtained about 21% of the votes, the centrist coalition headed by Monti 10% and the 5-star Movement, which entered Parliament for the first time, on the 25th. %. The PD, presenting itself in coalition with the Left Ecology and Freedom and the Italian Socialist Party, Italy. Common good, it obtained a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and a relative majority in the Senate, but not enough numbers to form a center-left government. The President of the Republic has instructed the leader of the center-left coalition, Pierluigi Bersani, to form a new government, but after the consultations the secretary of the PD negatively dissolved the reservation.

In a political situation of stalemate, aggravated by the economic and financial crisis and by the social hardships present in the country, Giorgio Napolitano was elected President of the Republic, for the second time on April 20, 2013, the only case in Italian history. In the same month of April the re-elected President gave the mandate to form a new government to the former deputy secretary of the Democratic Party Enrico Letta: the government, in office from April 28 of the same year to February 22, 2014, was supported, until November of 2013, by the PD, the PDL and the center coalition. After the split of the PDL into two parties, one anti-government – Forza Italia, led by Silvio Berlusconi – and one pro-government – the Nuovo center-right, led by Angelino Alfano, Forza Italia, has no longer supported the current government. The majority, thus reassembled, he then supported the new government led by the newly elected secretary of the Democratic Party Matteo Renzi, appointed since February 22, 2014. On January 14, 2015 Napolitano resigned and on January 31 the twelfth President of the Republic was elected the Judge of Constitutional Court Sergio Mattarella. On 11 December 2016, after Renzi’s resignation, following the negative result of the referendum, held on the previous December 4, on the constitutional reform strongly desired by his government, President Mattarella entrusted the task of forming a new government to Paolo Gentiloni, Foreign Minister in the Renzi government, in office from the following day.

In 2017, after the past electoral laws were declared partially unconstitutional by the Council, the so-called Rosatellum bis electoral law was approved, to make the system homogeneous for the two branches of Parliament. The new law opts for a mixed electoral system, 36 percent of the seats are assigned with the majority formula and the remaining 64 percent are assigned with the proportional method.

Italy Between 2000 and 2021 2

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