In the 2018 political elections, the center-right coalition, composed of Forza Italia, Lega, Fratelli d’Italia and Noi con Italia, obtained a total of about 37% of the votes, with the Lega as the first party in the coalition, the center-left about 22% of the votes with the PD around 19% and the 5-star Movement over 32% of the votes, making it the first party. In this essentially tripolar political situation, no party or coalition has achieved an absolute majority to govern. On the following 18 April, after two unsuccessful rounds of consultations, the President of the Republic entrusted the newly elected President of the Senate Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati with the exploratory mandate to verify the existence of a parliamentary majority between the center-right and the 5-star Movement, which ended on April 20 was not conclusive. On 23 April Mattarella entrusted the newly elected President of the Chamber of Deputies Roberto Fico with the exploratory mandate to verify the existence of a parliamentary majority between the 5-star Movement and the PD, which ended on 26 April with the start of a dialogue between the two. parties, dialogue that was interrupted a few days later. After other rounds of consultations, the 5-star Movement and the League reached an agreement and identified the shared premier in the jurist Giuseppe Conte. On May 23, President Mattarella entrusted the task of forming a new government to the jurist who accepted with reserve, a mandate that he remitted on May 27, after Mattarella did not accept the proposed minister of the economy, also seen abroad as a supporter of a line that could have provoked Italy’s exit from the euro, causing market instability. The following day, more than eighty days before the elections, the President entrusted the task of forming a new government to the economist Carlo Cottarelli who accepted with reserve, a mandate that he put back on May 31, re-opening the prospect of a political government. On the same day, in fact, Mattarella gave a second mandate to Giuseppe Conte who accepted and presented the list of ministers.
According to remzfamily.com, almost three months after the elections, avoiding early voting and financial speculation, the first yellow-green republican government was born, by virtue of a programmatic contract between M5s and Lega, with a team of ministers appointed by the President of the Republic on the recommendation of the head of the government more reassuring than the previous one regarding the respect of European and international ties. In August 2019, given the differences between the two majority parties, the Lega, thanks to the consensus obtained in the administrative and European elections, presented a motion of no confidence, then withdrawn, to the Prime Minister Conte, who resigned. of the government he chaired to President Mattarella, who took note of his resignation and invited the government to take care of the handling of current affairs. After two rounds of consultations, which highlighted a possible political agreement between the M5s and the Democratic Party, in a delicate phase for the country, in view of an economic maneuver to counter the increase in VAT, and with the slowdown of the European economy, on 29 August President Mattarella entrusted Conte with the task of forming a new government, which he accepted with reserve. On 4 September Conte positively dissolved the reserve and assumed the post of prime minister the following day, giving life to the first yellow-red government, supported not only by M5s and Pd, but also by LeU. A few days after the formation of the government, Renzi founded a new political entity, Italia viva, following the split from the PD, with the birth of new parliamentary groups that supported the executive, two ministers and an undersecretary of which they entered be part of Iv. In January 2021, in full pandemic emergency, the components of the government belonging to IV resigned from the executive, effectively opening the government crisis. Having posed the question of trust in Parliament, the government obtained an absolute majority in the Chamber but only that relating to the Senate, with the abstention of Iv. On the 26th of the same month, Conte resigned from the government he chaired to President Mattarella, who reserved the right to decide and invited the government to deal with current affairs. After a round of consultations, on January 29 Mattarella entrusted the President of the Chamber of Deputies Fico with the exploratory mandate to verify the possibility of a political majority made up of the groups that supported the previous government, which ended on February 2 with negative results. The next day Mattarella entrusted Professor M. Draghi, who accepted with reserve, the task of forming a new government, a high-profile government to deal with the serious emergencies present: health, social, economic, financial. On February 12, the economist positively dissolved the reservation, after two rounds of consultations with political parties and meeting the social partners, and took up the post of prime minister the next day, giving birth to a government composed of politicians and technicians, supported by the majority of parties.