According to localtimezone, the population of the Philippines took place due to successive contributions: they caused deep mixing along the coasts, but they often left areas of ethnic and linguistic fossilization in the forest interior. This discriminatory process is responsible for the presence of the Aeta, pygmies negritos, still very primitive tribes, who live in the innermost areas of Luzon, Mindanao and the Western Visayans and are in danger of extinction as a distinct ethnic group. Overall, the Philippines, however, has a fairly homogeneous population consisting of Paleo- Indonesian (in particular Igoroti) and Neo-Indonesian (visaya or bisaya, ilocani, Tagalog and others); they also practice elaborate agricultural techniques on the whole (such as the igoroti, the builders of the gigantic terraces cultivated on the northern mountains of Luzon) and culturally belong to the Malay world, but important influences have suffered, since the century. V, by the Chinese, who opened the islands to trade. New commercial activities took place with the Muslim penetration promoted by the Malay kingdoms; Islamism, although fiercely fought by the Spaniards, has remained rooted in the southern part of the archipelago, particularly in the south of Mindanao and in the Sulu, where the so-called moros live, devoted largely to seafaring activities and, in the past, to piracy. The Philippine armed forces have been engaged for years in clashes with the guerrillas of the Moro separatist organizations while alternating events have suffered the attempts of the central government to reach a peace agreement. There are also many Chinese, who carry out commercial activities and are distinguished by their resourcefulness, although they are kept aloof by the Filipinos. With a density of 331.28 residents/km², the Philippines is a densely populated country due to the high mountainous area of the territory. However, this is a phenomenon essentially due on the one hand to an increase in the means of subsistence (which occurred after the Spaniards had successfully introduced, thanks to the significant agricultural possibilities of the environment, new food plants, such as corn and potatoes), on the other hand to the elimination of many endemic diseases and to a general improvement in economic and social conditions. When they arrived there, in the century. XVI, the Spaniards estimated that the Philippines was home to only 500-750,000 residents. At the end of the century. XIX there were 8 million residents, but the demographic evolution, already characterized by strong natural increases, was upset by epidemics and internal conflicts; a notable recovery occurred after the already characterized by strong natural increases, it was devastated by epidemics and internal conflicts; a notable recovery occurred after the already characterized by strong natural increases, it was devastated by epidemics and internal conflicts; a notable recovery occurred after the World War I and in 1926 there were 11.7 million.
The Second World War also had serious consequences on the demographic picture, due to the difficult economic conditions as well as the actual human losses; however, there was a strong increase immediately afterwards and already in 1948 the population was over 19 million residents, which rose in 1960 to approx. 27.1 million. In the last years of the century. XX the demographic increase has been attested on an annual coefficient that is among the highest in the world, despite the country is often overwhelmed by natural disasters: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, (the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 was defined as the most destructive volcanic event that occurred in the country in the twentieth century), floods, typhoons (those of the 2006-2007 winter caused extensive damage and the death of hundreds of people), drought. The attempt implemented by governments since the mid-1980s. to bring population growth to the 1% threshold by the year 2000 has failed. Despite a slight decline in births, achieved through a birth control program – which was hindered by the Catholic authorities – at the beginning of the 21st century. the population growth rate is still above the expected limit (1.7% 2005-2010). Children under the age of 15 make up over a third of the total population and the number of those forced to work in the agriculture, fisheries and industry; according to international organizations, many are victims of abuse and violence. The population has a very varied distribution: in general it tends to concentrate on the coastal strips, but the distribution imbalances are serious both between zone and zone of the same islands, and between island and island. The migrations imposed on the populations from the most congested areas to the less inhabited ones have had little results; as a spontaneous and unstoppable trend there is the drive towards urbanization towards the Manila area and secondarily towards the major centers of the other islands. Nonetheless, more than a third of the population, made up mostly of rice farmers who practice their fundamental activity in the irrigated rice fields around the villages, still lives in the countryside. The cities exert a strong attraction on the rural population: in fact there is a constant emigration of young farmers and entire families. However, the distinction between urban and rural population is not so clear-cut, as, on the one hand, the rural population does not isolate itself in the countryside but is in close contact with urban communities, on the other hand the population of cities maintain links with the provinces. rural of origin. A characteristic form of settlement essentially linked to seafaring activities is that of the on the one hand the rural population does not isolate itself in the countryside but is in close contact with the urban communities, on the other hand the population of the cities maintains links with the rural provinces of origin. A characteristic form of settlement essentially linked to seafaring activities is that of the on the one hand the rural population does not isolate itself in the countryside but is in close contact with the urban communities, on the other hand the population of the cities maintains links with the rural provinces of origin. A characteristic form of settlement essentially linked to seafaring activities is that of the moros of the Sulu Islands, consisting of pile-dwelling villages.
The cities, and in particular Manila, are socially the result of an urbanism of colonial origin, today precarious and tumultuous, with indefinite characters, which also makes it difficult for the formation of active and well-integrated bourgeois classes. Manila is in this sense a typical expression of Asian urbanism. It was born as an outlet and support center of the colonial organization in the archipelago (of which it is the capital), favored in this respect both from the point of view of port activities due to its position on the beautiful bay of the same name, and of the productive and commercial as an outlet for the most fertile and densely populated agricultural region. Manila has thus gradually assumed the role of the driving force of the country’s modern economic developments. Quezon City, the second city in the country, an elegant residential center chosen to carry out mainly political-administrative and cultural functions, and Caloocan, a city with an industrial vocation. The ever-expanding metropolitan area of Manila is one of the largest urban agglomerations in all of Asia. Also on the island of Luzon, Batangas, a lively port center to the south of Manila, and Tarlac, a farmer’s market on an intensely cultivated fertile plain and an inland railway hub, are important. In Mindanao, all the major cities are coastal and base their economy on maritime traffic. Davao stands out, a modern city, located on the wide homonymous gulf and the outlet of a rich agricultural hinterland; follows Zamboanga, overlooking the southwestern coast a short distance from the Sulu islands, whose products it is the traditional collection center. The other major cities of the Philippines are the commercial hub of the largest and most populated islands. The most important is Cebu, the fifth largest city in the country, located on the island of the same name; it is rich in historical memories for having been the basis of the Spanish colonization in the archipelago, of which it remained the most important center until the foundation of Manila; it is still a very active port. Conspicuous traffic also carries out Iloilo, the outlet of the island of Panay, Bacolod, located on the northwestern coast of Negros, and Basilan, on the homonymous island. Except for the large centers of Quezon City, Caloocan, Davao and Cebu, the other cities have populations well under one million. Due to the critical economic situation, emigration abroad continues to be very consistent; in fact, a few million Filipinos work outside the country.