Sudan History

The Nile valley up to the 4th cataract (Nubia) was conquered by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC). From about 900 BC The kingdom of Kush ( Nubia ) existed in Sudan until 300 AD. In the 6th century, Christianity penetrated into Nubia from Egypt; it asserted itself against Islam in the northern state of Dongola until 1315 and against Islam in southern Soba until 1504. The Islamic empire Fung significantly shaped the history of the following centuries up to the Egyptian conquest in 1821. In 1841 the Ottoman empire Egypt confirmed the possession of Sudan; In 1874 the Egyptian expansion ended with the conquest of Darfur. Under pressure from Great Britain, the Egyptian government has since installed provincial governors of European origin in Sudan. With this request the British government sought to secure the suppression of the slave trade and at the same time to strengthen its colonial influence in Sudan. The Holy War against Egypt ( Mahdi Rebellion) announced by the Mahdi in 1881 ended on January 26, 1885 with the capture of Khartoum. The Mahdi was now absolute ruler in this room, but died that same year. His successor, Abdallah Ibn Saijid Mohammed, was able to enlarge the empire, but was defeated at Omdurman on September 2, 1898 by an Egyptian army under British leadership ( Lord Kitchener ) devastatingly beaten. After the settlement of the (British-French) Faschoda crisis, the country was treated as an Anglo-Egyptian Sudan condominium by Great Britain and Egypt from 1899, but in fact subsequently treated as a British colony.

From 1948 (first parliamentary election) Great Britain initiated decolonization in Sudan. According to Neovideogames, Egypt renounced its “co-rule” in 1953. In a referendum in 1955 a connection to Egypt was rejected, so that Egyptian and British troops had to withdraw and on January 1, 1956 Sudan became independent as a republic and member of the Arab League without joining the Commonwealth. However, the pro-Egyptian National Union Party (NUP; 50 of 97 parliamentary seats), which had ruled since 1954, immediately disintegrated into rival Islamic brotherhoods. In November 1958, the military under General Ibrahim Abboud (* 1900, † 1983) a military dictatorship which, however, was unable to end the secessionist uprising in the Christian south against Islamic domination in Sudan, which broke out in 1955 and which has been increasingly supported by the Anya-Nya guerrilla movement since 1963. After a general strike (October 1964), a civilian system of government was established again in November 1964, but it was overthrown in May 1969 and replaced by a dictatorial military regime. Major General J. M. an-Numeiri took over the chairmanship of the “Revolutionary Council”. After a failed coup by left-wing officers in 1971, there was bloody persecution of the communists and the establishment of a unity party based on the Egyptian model, the Sudanese Socialist Union (SSU). In April 1972, the southern part of the country was granted autonomy, temporarily ending the civil war. In 1976, an-Numeiri turned away from his initial ally, the Libyan head of state M. al Gaddhafi, dismissed the Soviet military advisers and sought support from the United States through the Egyptian President A. al-Sadat.

The increasing tensions between the Arab-Islamic north and the Christian-black African south in the early 1980s, the progressive Islamization and the deterioration of the economic situation led to a renewed outbreak of the civil war in 1983, which the military finally overthrew at-Numeiris on May 6th 4. took advantage of 1985, brought a military council to power and dissolved the SSU. After elections in April 1986, a civilian government was formed under S. Saddik al-Mahdi. It was overthrown on June 30, 1989 by a military coup; General O. HA al-Bashir took over power at the head of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Rescue (RCCNS) and initiated an emphatically Islamist domestic policy (including the introduction of Sharia law in 1991).

In spring 1992 the government attempted a military offensive against the Dinka-dominated Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) under the leadership of John Garang de Mabior (* 1945, † 2005) and against the Nuer and Shilluk, which split off from the SPLA in 1991 born Southern Sudanese Independence Movement (SSIM) to end the civil war. With the appointment of Bashir as president in October 1993 (confirmed in office in March 1996 and December 2000 in the elections boycotted by the opposition) and the dissolution of the RCCNS, the military rule officially ended. The government pushed the radical Islamization (based mainly on the National Islamic Front and its leader H. A. Turabi ) and continued to try to militarily suppress the autonomy movement in the Christian-dominated south. On the one hand, there were fights between government troops and SPLA or SSIM units as well as numerous other v. a. ethnic and partly competing military groups, on the other hand between SPLA and SSIM associations, in the course of which serious human rights violations were committed several times.

Against the background of a famine and increasing refugee flows, there were repeated attempts at mediation, among others. the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD), an association of East African countries. In February 1997, the SSIM unilaterally declared a ceasefire and, together with other rebel organizations, signed a peace charter with the government in April 1997. Talks between the government and the SPLA ended unsuccessfully in the autumn of 1997, but resumed in May 1998 in the face of the ongoing famine. However, there was no sign of an end to the civil war. The situation was made more difficult by violent political disputes in the Islamic north,

During peace negotiations in Switzerland in January 2002, the SPLA and the government initially agreed on a ceasefire in the Nuba Mountains and an area of ​​around 1,000 km 2large demilitarized zone in this area. A nationwide ceasefire was finally signed in Machakos (Kenya) in October 2002. An agreement reached there in July 2002 provided that a transitional period of six years should follow after a comprehensive peace settlement has been concluded; within this time, inter alia a referendum will be held on the autonomy of South Sudan. In January 2004 the conflicting parties agreed v. a. on the distribution of the profits from the oil fields in the south of the country, an agreement agreed in May 2004 regulated inter alia. a future government participation of the SPLA. After more than 20 years of civil war in the south of the country, which caused around 1.5 million deaths and an estimated 4 million refugees, it was finally concluded on January 9th. In 2005 in Nairobi (Kenya) a comprehensive peace treaty was signed between the Sudanese government and the SPLA, which in the meantime also referred to itself as the SPLM (Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement), which also summarized and reaffirmed the agreements that had been concluded since 2002. To monitor the agreements made, the UN Security Council decided in March 2005 to send a peacekeeping force to the south of the country. In implementation of the Nairobi Peace Agreement, SPLA became leader on July 9, 2005 To monitor the agreements made, the UN Security Council decided in March 2005 to send a peacekeeping force to the south of the country. In implementation of the Nairobi Peace Agreement, SPLA became leader on July 9, 2005 To monitor the agreements made, the UN Security Council decided in March 2005 to send a peacekeeping force to the south of the country. In implementation of the Nairobi Peace Agreement, SPLA became leader on July 9, 2005 Garang sworn in as vice president of a transitional government; however, he remained President of South Sudan. At the same time, a transitional constitution was signed, which a commission of representatives from the government, political parties and former rebels had drawn up since May 2005. The Nairobi Agreement effectively ended the war in the south of the country, but did not affect the conflicts in the western region of Darfur. After Garang was killed in a helicopter crash on July 30, 2005, v. a. serious unrest broke out in the capital Khartoum. However, the SPLM reiterated its intention to maintain the peace process. Garang’s successor was his former deputy within the SPLM, S. Kiir Mayardit. Another step in the implementation of the peace program was the formation of a government of national unity on September 22, 2005 in Khartoum.

Sudan History

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