Ukraine: Holidays and national customs
There are a number of public holidays that do not have a fixed date but are based on the time of Easter.
The Easter falls on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the beginning of spring (March 21).
Lent, which lasts for 46 days, begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Holy Saturday.
Pentecost is 50 days after Easter.
Christi festival The Corpus Christi festival is celebrated on the second Thursday after Pentecost. All Saints’ Day is celebrated for Orthodox Christians on the first Sunday after Pentecost, but for Catholic Christians the date is fixed on November 1st.
Reformation Day, Halloween Festival
The Protestants celebrate Reformation Day on October 31st. The Halloween festival also takes place on this day.
Public Holidays in Ukraine
|January 1||New Year|
|January 7||Orthodox Christmas|
|8th of March||International Women’s Day|
|1./2. May||Days of labor|
|May 9||Victory Day (World War 2)|
|June 28||Constitution Day|
|August 24||Independence day|
|24th of December||Christmas eve|
Source: Countryaah – Ukraine Holidays
Russian Orthodox Christmas is celebrated across the country in January.
On the occasion of the April celebrations, events with street dances and costume parades take place in Odessa.
Kiev Day is celebrated at the end of May.
Summer music evenings are held in Kiev from May to July.
On July 24th, celebrations of Independence Day take place across the country.
The Sarochin market is held in central Ukraine in August.
The International Film Festival takes place in Kiev in October.
On December 6th, St. Nicholas Day is also celebrated in Ukraine.
Successful footballers have always come from Ukraine. Of the 22-strong USSR squad at the 1986 World Cup, 14 footballers came from Ukraine, twelve of them played at Dynamo Kiev. The “Sbirna” or Allstars, as the national team is affectionately known, was the first European team to qualify as a World Cup participant for Germany. Your star is the world-class striker Andrei Shevchenko. The AC Milan striker was named European Footballer of the Year in 2004. Furthermore, Andrej Vorobey from Schachtar Donezk and Andrej Voronin from Bayer Leverkusen are the attackers in the Ukrainian storm. They form one of the most dangerous attack trios in Europe. In Group H, the Sbirna can reach the round of 16. As a result, the team can be trusted to do anything.
National customs, photography
All major Ukrainian cities now have a wide range of restaurants, both inexpensive and luxurious. In addition to the classic Ukrainian cuisine, there are also “exotic” dishes such as Asian and Italian cuisine.
Ukrainians are known for their hospitality. It often happens that after a short acquaintance you are invited to a Ukrainian family home.
Elegant clothing is only necessary for visits to the theater and the opera. Tips are of course always welcome, but are actually included in the bill.
You should be careful when taking photos: It is forbidden to take photos of military installations, seaports, industrial zones and railroad or traffic facilities.
The climate in Ukraine is continental; Mediterranean climate only prevails in the south. Precipitation is unevenly distributed: it rains more in the west and north than in the east and south-east. Temperatures also vary in winter. It is cool on the Black Sea, but significantly colder inland. The summers are warm in large parts of the country and rather hot in the south.
The idea of what is meant by a particularly favorable travel climate depends on various factors. Pure cultural travelers certainly see the climate differently than people planning a beach holiday. Health status and age can also play a role in the experience of the climate. In Ukraine in particular, geography rather than the season must be taken into account.
For summer vacationers and people who like to enjoy a lot of sun and for whom higher temperatures do not cause problems, the Crimean peninsula is particularly suitable. The climate here is subtropical, due to the mountain range that keeps the north winds away from the region. Exotic plants grow here just as well as wine. There are also many excellent swimming opportunities and from May to September every summer vacationer will get their money’s worth here.
For people who prefer temperate climates
People who prefer temperate climates and lower temperatures should choose spring or autumn to stay in Ukraine. In the mountainous region of the Carpathians you can go mountain climbing and hiking; there are also many health resorts and hiking areas, especially the Carpathian National Park has a lot to offer.
For winter sports
enthusiasts In the mountains of the country, plenty of snow can be expected every winter – the best conditions for passionate skiers and tobogganists. However, heavy snowfalls can make traveling to and from the airport more difficult. However, the Carpathian Mountains offer good winter sports opportunities. The winter sports resorts of Slawsko and Skole are particularly popular.
The following table shows climate data for Ukraine. It should be noted that the climatic conditions in different regions of the country can differ from each other and thus also from the values shown. In addition, the monthly average values of the temperature have little informative value with regard to the minimum or maximum temperatures. It is possible that at average temperatures of around 20 °C maximum values of 30 °C or more occur. The table therefore only provides a general overview of the climatic conditions in.
|month||average number of rainy days||mean maximum temperatures in (°C)||mean minimum temperatures in (°C)||Humidity in%|
|January||17-19||-05 to -03||-11 to -09||83-85|
|February||17-19||-02 to -01||-09 to -07||80-82|
|March||15-17||02-04||-05 to -03||77-79|
|April||10-12||13-15||04 – 06||66-68|
|November||14-16||05-07||-01 to 01||86-88|
|December||18-20||-02 to 0||-07 to -05||86-88|
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Presents the way that UP stands for the nation of Ukraine as a two-letter acronym.
Cities in Ukraine
The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv (Kiev). With approx. 2.7 million residents it is the largest city in Ukraine and also the capital of the region (“Oblast”) Kiev, which has approx. 3 million residents. The city lies on the Dnieper River, which can even be navigated by small ships as far as Kiev, so the city has a port. Kiev is not only the political center of the country, but also one of the economic hubs of the country and all of Eastern Europe:
The city is located at the intersection of the traffic routes between Istanbul, Athens, Sofia, Minsk and Moscow as well as between Western Europe and the Caucasus, and Kiev can look back on more than 1500 years of history.
The industrial city of Kharkiv is located in the northeast of Ukraine and represents the cultural center of the region: There is a university, several colleges, theaters and museums.
With 1.4 million residents, Kharkiv is the second largest city in Ukraine.
Both the cathedral and the neoclassical theater are worth seeing. The university is located on a square that was built between 1920 and 1930 and is the largest in Europe with over 11 hectares.
Kherson, the seaport and capital of the oblast of the same name, spreads out on the delta of the Dnieper and near the Black Sea.
The beginnings of the Crimea are only about 100 km southeast. Kherson is not one of the tourist attractions of Ukraine, but can score with the remains of the first fortress, several museums and pretty churches. The most impressive building is certainly the Holy Spirit Cathedral with its large dome.
With its 1,050,000 residents, Dnipropetrovsk is the third largest city in Ukraine. But it also bears the title of the youngest city in the country. It is located in the central east of Ukraine and is structured by the Dnepr. Dnepropetrovsk is not only an important economic location and formerly an important center of the Soviet nuclear energy, space travel and arms industries. It is also a university town with lots of greenery and Karl-Marx-Allee, a main axis laid out in the 18th century, which shapes the cityscape with its attractive houses. In addition to the rocket museum, the Kodak Fortress a little outside and October Square, the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Christ from 1787 is particularly interesting for tourists.
The university town of Ivano-Frankivsk has about 218,000 residents and is located in western Ukraine in the Sub-Carpathian Mountains and belongs to Galicia.
The old town is particularly worth seeing as it has been almost completely renovated in the period since independence. The architecture is similar to that of Austria-Hungary.
There is also a well-preserved Jewish cemetery in the city center.
The green port city of Yalta on the Crimean peninsula is also called “the pearl of the Crimea” and is a popular holiday destination due to its beautiful sea location and exotic vegetation.
The city has about 77,000 residents. Yalta is not connected to the rail network, as the city lies on the other side of the Crimean Mountains in a valley basin, so Yalta has to be connected to the rest of Ukraine by the longest trolleybus line in the world. Sights include the Massandra Castle, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and the Livadija Palace, where the Yalta Conference took place from February 4-11, 1945.
157,000 people live in the Ukrainian port city of Kerch in the Crimea. Visitors mostly come to the city to get to the Taman Peninsula from there.
But the city itself also offers a lot of attractions such as the Turkish fortress Jenikalé or the catacombs from the Second World War, which can be found in a former mine.
From Mount Mitridat you can enjoy a wonderful view of the city. Up there are the ruins of the Acropolis of Pantikapaion, a historical jewel from the 6th century BC. Chr.
Luhansk is the capital of the Luhansk Oblast of the same name. 463,000 people live there at the confluence of the Luhan and Olchowa rivers. The city, called Voroshilovgrad until 1992, is more of an industrial location and not very interesting for tourists, but it knows how to please with its Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Vladimir.
Mykolaiv is located in the southern part of Ukraine on the Black Sea on a plateau where the southern Bug and the Inhul flow together. The city has approx. 510,000 residents and is a center for industry, construction, nuclear power, light and food industries. The large shipyards, the port and the naval base are also important for economic life. Mykolaiv can also be proud of the status of a cultural center; the universities and theaters, among others, are decisive for this.
Lemberg is located in western Ukraine on the Poltwa river, 80 kilometers from the Polish border. Lviv has around 760,000 residents, but is a rather tranquil city in the Carpathian mountain range. Many call Lviv “the secret capital” of Ukraine because it is the most important city in the Ukrainian-speaking western Ukraine. The old town of Lviv has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The most important sights of the city include the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, the Armenian Cathedral, the town houses on Rinkplatz, the Hohe Schlossberg and the town hall.
You can find out more about Lviv here >>>
The eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk, named after the Siverskyi Donets river, is the center of the oblast of the same name and the unofficial capital of the economically and culturally important Donetsk basin.
It is therefore not surprising that the city, with its incredible concentration of companies and well-trained specialists, is the financial, industrial, cultural and scientific center of the region.
Both in 2009 and 2010 Donetsk was chosen as the most important city in Ukraine and in 1970 by UNESCO as the best industrial city in the world. UNESCO also honored Donetsk as one of the greenest cities in the world, which also goes with the name “City of Millions of Roses”.
You can find out more about Donetsk here >>>
The port city of Odessa in the Black Sea region is the most important port city in Ukraine on the Black Sea with over one million residents. It is an important industrial location and the seat of many scientific institutions.
The city is also a well-known health resort. The main attractions of the city include the Potemkin Stairs, which lead from the old town to the harbor, the Opera House and Cathedral Square. There is a botanical garden and several other parks as well as bathing beaches that offer recreational and leisure opportunities.
You can find out more about Odessa here >>>
Zaporizhia is a city in southern Ukraine with a population of about 823,000. It lies on the Dnieper River and is an important traffic junction as well as a cultural location. There are also many parks and green spaces and the small island of Chortysja in the Dnieper River as a further recreational area for residents and visitors. The Kachowka reservoir is only 60 km away from the city.
The port city of Sevastopol is located on the Black Sea, has around 380,000 residents, making it the largest city on the autonomous Crimean peninsula. The climate here is almost subtropical and there can be temperatures of over 40 degrees in summer, but there is always a light breeze blowing over the peninsula. Sevastopol is part of Ukraine, but the region is heavily dominated by the Russian authorities. Every year the city is visited by more than half a million tourists. Sevastopol is also the educational center of Crimea and many scientific institutes and organizations have their headquarters here. There are more than 2,000 monuments in Sevastopol, but also numerous representative modern buildings. Also worth seeing are the Vladimir Cathedral, the Peter and Paul Church and the Pokrovsky Cathedral.
Simferopol is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. With about 345,000 residents it is smaller than Sevastopol, but the administration of the Crimea is located here. The city’s cultural highlights include the internationally known puppet theater and the city’s art museum, which is also the Ukrainian center of Islam.
Chernihiv (also Chernihiv) is one of the oldest and most important cities of the Kievan Rus. It was mentioned for the first time in 907 as the capital of the East Slavic tribe of the Severyan. The interested city visitor can still visit numerous buildings from the old Russian era. These include the city’s cathedrals and churches. More recent buildings from the Ukrainian Baroque and Classicism periods have also been preserved.
Uzhhorod, also known as Ungwar in German, stretches across the border triangle between Hungary, Ukraine and Slovakia. The city is the seat of a Greek Catholic diocese and impresses with its beautiful historic city center, which is flavored by Japanese cherry blossom trees. The longest avenue of lime trees in Europe meanders along the banks of the Usch River, from which the city owes its name. The castle from the 9th century is of particular architectural interest.
Special places and streets
Maidan Nesaleshnosti (“Independence Square”)
This square in the center of Kiev is one of the most important main squares in the city and is surrounded by many historical buildings. There are almost always tourists and locals on the move, giving it a lively face. Several fountains and stairs as well as a memorial column decorate the square.
By the way
In the 2000s, the largest political demonstrations in Ukraine took place in this square. The most important of these was certainly the “Orange Revolution” in 2004. At that time, several 100,000 protesters had gathered on the square and stayed in tents for several weeks despite the cold. The protest had arisen because of electoral fraud and ultimately helped candidate Viktor Yushchenko to his well-deserved victory.
In November 2013, peaceful demonstrations began here against President Viktor Fedorowytsch Yanukovych, who has been President of Ukraine since February 2010. Between 2002 and 2005 and from 2006 to 2007 he was also Prime Minister of Ukraine.
The protests expanded and the square became more and more a fortress of the opposition.
From 18./19. In February 2014, real battles broke out between the demonstrators and the police, during which, according to the opposition, over 70 people were killed and well over a thousand were injured. The regime’s snipers are said to have targeted the heads of the demonstrators from the surrounding rooftops.
But the demonstrators had ultimately won. Yanukovych was deposed and went into hiding and is even wanted on an arrest warrant. And Yulia Tymoshenko was released after 2.5 years in prison. A new president will be elected on May 25, 2014.
Michailplatz in Kiev
The Michailplatz in Kiev is impressive: Here you will find both the Michael Monastery and the St. Sophia Church, which has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The equestrian monument of the Cossacks catches the eye. There are also many old and new buildings to marvel at, one of which is the Ukrainian Historical Museum.
Lviv market square
The tranquil Lviv market square is particularly beautiful, with the town hall in the center. The city’s historical museum is also located here, in a house made of black stones. The museum pharmacy is also worth seeing.
Svobodi Prospect – the Prospect of Freedom
On the west side of the medieval city center of Lviv is the Svobodi Prospect – the Prospect of Freedom. What is meant are two broad streets with an elongated park in the middle. There are many expensive restaurants and hotels here and a monument to the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchanko. At the northern end of the prospect is the Iwan Franko Opera and Ballet Theater. Ivan Franko is considered a national hero in Ukraine. The forecourt of the theater, which was completed in 1900, is a popular meeting place for the Ukrainian population.
Inner city of Odessa
The inner city of Odessa has been laid out in a particularly interesting way and impresses with the impression of regularity: the center of the megacity was built almost in a checkerboard pattern, with houses that almost all date from the same era. The inner city is overgrown with greenery and the buildings are colorful, modern architecture or taller buildings apart from churches cannot be found in this old town.
Center of Yalta
The center of the Crimean city of Yalta is world-famous for the prevailing subtropical climate and of course the Yalta Conference in 1945, when the further fate of Germany was discussed here. The center of the health resort is small and resembles many other small coastal towns here, which convince with their pleasantly quiet atmosphere.
Jevgena Fenzika Square
Jevgena Fenzika Square in Ushgorod is located in the historical center of the city on the bank of the Ush River. From this square a promenade leads along the river, there are many shops and restaurants.
Deribasiwska Street in Odessa
Every visitor can spend their money on Deribasiwska Street in the center of Odessa: there are the most expensive restaurants and numerous boutiques on this street, which largely consists of a pedestrian zone.
The Karl-Marx-Prospect in Dnepropetrovsk is a gigantic street that begins at the city’s train station and runs through the entire city center. In the middle there is a park that invites you to linger: From here you can see the large administration buildings and department stores as well as the shops and boutiques of the prospectus.
Andreas-Gasse in Kiev
A now very touristy street in Kiev is the steeply rising Andreas-Gasse.
Here the visitor can stroll along numerous galleries and street vendor stalls and with a bit of luck discover a worthwhile bargain among all kinds of trinkets.
Khreshchatik Street in Kiev
Khreshchatik Street in Kiev runs through Independence Square. It is one of the city’s boulevards and is lined with shops, restaurants, cafes, banks and office buildings.
Golden Gate of Kiev
The Golden Gate of Kiev is a city gate that was built under Yaroslav the Wise on the model of the Golden Gate of Constantinople. In the 13th century the gate was damaged by Mongolian troops, in the 19th century it was reconstructed. For a long time the Golden Gate was the main entrance to Kiev. Today the gate houses a museum that was set up on the occasion of its 1500th anniversary.
Kiev television tower
At 385 meters, what is probably the highest steel framework construction in the world is the Kiev transmission tower for VHF and television. It was built in 1973.
Historic city wall in Lviv
In Lviv, parts of the historic city wall are still preserved in a restored form.
The National Circus of Ukraine (Національний цирк України) was built between 1958 and 1960 according to plans by the Russian architect VI Zhukov.
The monumental circus building was built in the neoclassical style with a portal, a central dome and a top. The circus offers space for around 2,000 people. Only circus events take place in the building. Stadtrajon Shevchenko
Victory place No. 2
In Dnepropetrovsk on Karl-Marx-Prospect there is a modern building, inside of which the visitor can see the “Panorama of the Liberation of Dnepropetrovsk”: This is a semicircular battle painting that tells of the fight of the Red Army against the Wehrmacht soldiers.
Potemkin Stairs of Odessa
The Potemkin Stairs of Odessa were built between 1837 and 1841. The width of the steps has been varied so that the stairs appear particularly high and huge from below. The stairs became famous as a result of a silent film: “Battleship Potemkin” by Sergej Eisenstein, which was filmed in 1925. The staircase connects a large pier with the monument to the French Duke Emmanuel Richelieu.
Bogdan and Varvara Khanenko Museum of Art in Kiev
This museum exhibits the largest Ukrainian collection of foreign art. This includes not only Western European paintings as well as Egyptian and classical antiques, but also ceramics and porcelain from all over the world.
Odessa’s Archaeological Museum
The museum is primarily concerned with the history of the northern Black Sea region. In addition to the extensive collection of archaeological finds, exhibits from ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, Rome and Cyprus are also on display. It also has a coin collection with around 50,000 exhibits.
National Museum in Kiev
The National Museum is located in Kiev right next to the complex of the cave monasteries in the midst of a no less huge area. The statue of “Mother Homeland” is particularly eye-catching because of its height of over 100 meters and is intended to commemorate the war against National Socialist Germany.
Planetarium in Donetsk
On Artema Street you will find the very interesting planetarium of Donetsk, which can fall back on the most modern technology. The visitors are immersed in virtual landscapes, planetary systems and star constellations and experience worlds that they would never see.
Regional History Museum
If you take tram No. 1 to Cheluskintzew Street near the Donbass Arena, you will come to the Regional History Museum of Donetsk. The house, which was founded in 1924, documents the eventful history of Donetsk and the entire region with the help of around 120,000 exhibits.
State Art Museum
The Donetsk State Art Museum is located on Pushkin Boulevard. It is considered the cultural heart and center of the entire region, especially since it exhibits more than 11,000 paintings, sculptures and graphics by artists from all over the world.
Opera and theater
The Kruschelnyzka Opera
House in Lviv The historic opera house on Swobody Avenue, in the immediate heart of Lviv, not only performs a wide variety of operas and ballets, but is also one of Lviv’s main attractions.
That is why we strongly recommend a visit to those who have not been enthusiastic about operas and ballets before, because the ambience is simply spectacular.
The current building is an architectural child of 1900. It was created by the local architect Zygmunt Gorgolewski (1845-1903). Grogolewski was influenced by the Renaissance and Baroque as well as the Vienna Court Opera.
Statues, colored marble, frescoes, reliefs and ornaments dominate the interior. The auditorium, which is held like a box theater, can comfortably seat around 1,070 people.
Opera House “Taras Shevchenko”, Kiev
Since 1867, operas and ballets have been performed regularly in the Kiev City Theater, so this year is now considered the founding year of Kiev Opera. After the old theater building burned down in 1896, a new city theater was built between 1898 and 1901 in the style of rationalism, baroque and neo-Romanesque based on plans by Viktor Schröter (1839-1901), while the facade was decorated in the neo-renaissance style.
The official inauguration took place in September 1901 with the opera “A Life for the Tsar” by Michail Glinka (1804-1857). In addition to local pieces, works by foreign authors and composers were also played afterwards. The assassination attempt on September 14, 1911, when Russian Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin (1862-1911) was seriously wounded by two pistol shots while visiting the opera, was a tragic event. He succumbed to his injuries four days later.
In 1939 the opera house was renamed Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861) – painter and one of the most important Ukrainian poets – and his bust was placed above the portal.
The building survived the Second World War without any significant damage. In 1988 the opera house was renovated and the stage was enlarged. Since then there has been space for up to 1,650 visitors in the interior. In 1992 the opera house was elevated to the status of a national opera
National Philharmonic Society of Ukraine in Kiev
The Kiev Concert Hall is located at the end of Khreshchatik Street and can look back on a long history that began in the 19th century. Since then the house has welcomed many famous composers such as Rachmaninoff, Scrijabin and Tchaikovsky.
Uzhgorod District Philharmonic Hall
The Uzhgorod District Philharmonic Hall is an ornamented, red building with round arches that has a strangely oriental look. Originally it was a synagogue.
Donetsk Opera and Ballet House
Famous operas and operettas of Ukraine and the world are performed in the Donetsk State Opera and Ballet House on Artema Street. The building dates from 1936 and is a veritable jewel of a theater: Its elegant interior is only surpassed by the artistic performances.
Odessa Opera House
The magnificent classicist opera house is considered one of the most beautiful in the world. Above all, the lavishly decorated interiors ensure this reputation. The opera is also known for its excellent acoustics. The building was constructed from 1884 to 1887 by the Viennese architects Fellner and Helmer after the original building from 1809 was destroyed in a fire. Today ballet and opera performances take place regularly.
Castles and Palaces
Richard the Lionheart’s castle in Kiev
Built by Dimitri Orlow between 1902 and 1904, the house in Andriyivsky Uzwiz should also bear his name. However, following the construction work there was a scandal with the city authorities, so that Victor Nekrasov named the building after the famous English king and crusader, about whom he was just writing a book at the time. The Gothic style elements reinforce this connection architecturally. The cellar of the house is home to a hairdresser, a grocery store and a butcher shop. The house is currently being converted into a hotel.
Swallow’s Nest Castle in Yalta
The Swallow’s Nest is a small castle near the city of Yalta on the south coast of the Crimean peninsula – and also its landmark, due to the peculiarity of its location: The Swallow’s Nest was built in 1911 by a German baron on a 40-meter-high cliff built on the sea, on Cape Myis Ai Todor. Today the miniature castle houses a luxury restaurant
Livadija Palace near Yalta
The Livadija Palace near Yalta on the Crimean peninsula is located on the Crimean Mountains. The palace was originally built in 1911 as a summer residence for Tsar Nikolai II. It is set in beautiful gardens and both the architecture and the interior are impressive. The Yalta Conference took place here on February 4, 1945: for a week Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt discussed the post-war order and the role of Russia in the war against Japan.
High Fortress of Lviv
The High Fortress is located on a small hill just a few kilometers from downtown Lviv. The fortress was used to protect the city and dates from the 13th century. There is a viewing platform at a height of around 400 meters.
Shah Palace of Odessa
The building was built in 1852 for a wealthy landowner. The architecture is based on the appearance of medieval castles, with crenellated towers and a large inner courtyard. In 1909 the palace was given to the Shah Mohammad Ali, who fled Iran to Odessa, and has been named after him ever since. The renovated building has been owned by a bank since 2002.
Churches, monasteries and cemeteries
Svyato Michailiwskii Solotowerchii Monastir
The Michael Monastery in Kiev.
This monastery building in Kiev was captured in the 18th century, destroyed in 1936 and rebuilt between 1997 and 1998.
First of all, it has a striking color scheme: the main part of the building is blue, has numerous golden domes and an interesting bell tower. There is also a history museum inside.
It is located on Michael-Platz (see: Cultural institutions).
Church of St. Sophia in Kiev
The Church of St. Sophia or St. Sophia Cathedral, built in 1037, is the oldest sacred building in Kiev. It is considered to be one of the most outstanding buildings in European-Christian culture.
During the Kievan Rus it was the main seat of the church. In the 17th century the Sophienkirche was restored in the Ukrainian baroque style.
It is a four-domed, five-nave cruciform church and the gallery inside is open according to the Byzantine model. The numerous frescoes and mosaics as well as the tomb of Yaroslav the Wise are particularly interesting.
The St. Sophia Cathedral is depicted on a Russian coin and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Andrew’s Church in Kiev
The Andrew’s Church is located halfway along Andreas-Gasse in Kiev. It was built from 1749 for Catherine the Great by the Italian builder Bartolomo Francesco Rastrello.
Kiev Pechersk Lavra, Kiev-Pecherska Lavra
The Kiev Pechersk Pechersk Lavra is located right next to the Park of Highest Fame in the Pechersk district and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Since the river bank is hilly and there are numerous caves, the monastery got its name, and monks have lived in the caves since the 11th century. Today there are many church and monastery buildings here and the area is now a place of pilgrimage for Russian Orthodox Christians. The famous Uspensky Cathedral is located in the center of this area. The sacred building was only recently rebuilt after it was blown up by the German or Red Army. There are many museums and a theater around the cathedral for those interested in culture. A special part of the place of pilgrimage are the Petscheri, caves that run through many winding passages.
Latin Cathedral of Lviv The Latin Cathedral of Lviv
, built in the 14th and 15th centuries, is very beautiful: It is a huge cathedral at the southwest end of the market square. As one of the few, she is originally Roman Catholic.
Dominican Church of Lemberg
The Dominican Church of Lemberg is located on the eastern edge of the old town and has a large, green dome as its most striking feature. During the Soviet occupation the church was used as a museum for atheism and religion.
Armenian Church of Lviv
The Armenian Church of Lviv was built in the 14th century by the Armenian minority north of the market. Until 2003 it was restored in perfect style and finally reopened; it differs significantly from the other sacred buildings in the city.
Cathedral The Dnepropetrovsk Cathedral is much smaller than what was apparently originally intended: the foundation walls are much larger than the rest of the structure. They wanted to build the church in honor of Catherine the Great, but had to interrupt the construction due to lack of money and later thought of a smaller variant. Inside, the cathedral has recently been restored and richly decorated with gold.
Cathedral of Uzhgorod
The twin-towered Cathedral of Uzhgorod was originally built in 1646 by Jesuits. The towers were erected much later and the church is now Ukrainian-Catholic. Around the cathedral there are small, old houses and monasteries.
The Lyczakowski cemetery east of the city center of Lviv is impressive due to its size, its thousands of graves of people from all over the world (many personalities also found their final resting place here), its picturesque location in the middle of green hills and numerous monuments; for example there is a staircase with the names of many war victims engraved on the side.
National University of Kiev-Mohyla Academy in Kiev
NaUKMA is the oldest and one of the most important Ukrainian universities. Its founding dates back to the 17th century, although it was only awarded the status of a state university in 1994. The Russian scientist and poet Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Lomonossow also studied at the university.
National Technical University of Donetsk (DonNTU)
The Technical University of Donetsk has existed since 1921. In the first five years it was still operated as a mining school and from 1926 to 1935 as a university mining institute. From 1935 to 1960 it was first an industrial institute and then a polytechnic university until 1993 before it was given its current status in 1993.
Donetsk National University In
1937 the Donetsk State Pedagogical Institute was established by decree of the Ukrainian SSR. At that time it only had two faculties. For a time the university was connected to the institute of the Kharkiv State University, which now functions independently. The university, whose main building is a 12-story high-rise, was given its current name in 2000. It currently consists of twelve faculties and five university institutes.
State II Mechnikov University of Odessa
This university was opened as the New Russian University in 1857 and in 1945 it was renamed the State II Mechnikov University of Odessa after the Ukrainian Nobel Prize winner for physiology or medicine Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov. The University operates the important Odessa Astronomical Observatory.
National Taras Shevchenko University in Kiev
The university was founded in 1930. Consists of the following faculties:
- Mechanics and mathematics
- Sociology and psychology
Natural beauties, monuments
The Crimean peninsula is located in the Black Sea – it seems to hang like a cone through a 10 km wide strip on the Ukrainian mainland.
Most of the residents of the peninsula are Russians, but Ukrainians, Greeks, Armenians, Germans and Crimean Tatars also live here. The Crimean Mountains extend along the south coast, there are many gorges and the Roman-Kosch, at 1,545 meters the highest mountain on the island.
The climate here is almost subtropical, as the mountain range in the south protects the peninsula from winds. Wine is grown here, but the famous Crimean sparkling wine is also produced here. The rest of the country is rather flat and characterized by steppe and salt marshes. In the north of the Crimea there are many lakes and there are numerous offshore islands.
Monument in the “Babi
Yar ” Gorge Babi Yar – Russian Бабий Яр (Babi Yar; translated Woman’s Gorge) – was a gorge in Kiev. The gorge gained notoriety during the “Second World War” when 33,771 Jews were murdered here by the Nazis.
Before the Germans marched into Kiev, including the 6th Army, which was later destroyed in Stalingrad, only 50,000 of the original 220,000 Jewish residents remained – mostly women, old people and children. The Commander-in-Chief of the 6th Army was Field Marshal General Walter von Reichenau, who died as a result of a stroke. Kiev was placed under occupation law and Major General Kurt Eberhard was appointed city commander of Kiev. As a result of attacks in the city center, some 100 Germans were killed.
As a result, on September 27, 1941, it was decided to shoot the Kiev Jews. As is often the case, the murder plan was camouflaged by an “evacuation order” from the Jews. According to a report by the SS, General Field Marshal Reichenau expressly welcomed and supported the murder. He also issued the notorious Commissar’s Order, which ordered the murder of all captured political commissars of the Soviet Army.
On September 28, 1941, the announcement was made to the Kiev Jews that they would be near the train station on September 29, taking warm clothes, money and personal documents with them. Then the completely unsuspecting people were led in groups to the gorge and shot there naked with machine guns, machine guns, rifles and pistols. The shootings dragged on for about 36 hours. As mentioned, 33,771 Jewish men, women and children were murdered. Members of the 6th Army secured the gorge and after the murder, blew up the walls of the gorge to make the corpses disappear underground.
It should be mentioned that under the impression of this massacre, the Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko (born 1932) wrote a poem that was set to music in 1962 by the composer Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975) in his 13th symphony.
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve extends downstream of the Danube. It consists of four main arms and several side arms and there are floating islands, lakes, floodplain forests and dry habitats. At 5,000 km², the Danube Delta is the largest wetland in Europe, home to more than 4,000 animal species and over 1,000 plant species. UNESCO declared the delta a World Heritage Site and the governments of Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine committed to protecting the wetlands.
Bathing beaches of Odessa
Several bathing beaches extend over 40 kilometers along the Odessa Bay. All can be easily reached by bus, tram or boat. Because of the temperate climate and long summers, the bathing season on Odessa’s beaches runs from May to October. They provide relaxation and a maritime flair, but are usually constantly overcrowded during the summer months. The most popular beaches are Arkadija and Zolotyj bereg. The former can also be reached by boat from the harbor, with stops at other beaches.
Park Kowanih figurine
Donetsk is like a fairy tale, where characters from legends and stories come together and provide a fabulous backdrop for especially newlyweds who want to capture their happiness in a photo. But the park also includes creations related to the signs of the zodiac as well as a pavilion for lovers and hosts the big blacksmith festival every year. A total of over 90 statues can be seen. The park belongs to the Voroshilov district and is easily accessible by bus.
High mountains of the Carpathians
The high mountains of the Carpathians are the largest closed forest area in Europe. Numerous large wild carnivores such as bears, lynxes and wolves live here; Overall, the Carpathians resemble the Alps in flora and fauna. Numerous rivers such as the Dniester and the Ush have their source in the Forest Carpathians.
Askania-Nowa nature reserve The Askania-Nowa
nature reserve is located in southern Ukraine in Kherson Oblast. Here you can find natural steppe vegetation and, in the center of the area, the urban settlement of Askania-Nova. This place has a zoo and a botanical garden. More than 50 rare animal species live in Askania-Nowa, some of them were settled there by humans, such as the Przewalski horses.
The Ukrainian research area for steppe cattle breeding is also located in Askania-Nowa.
Wolodimirska Hirka Park in Kiev
The Wolodimirska Hirka Park is the western part of the green lung of Kiev. It is located in the hilly landscape of the Dnieper river, from here you can enjoy the wonderful view of the city. The monument of St. Volodimir is located in the Wolodimirska Hirka Park in Kiev. Christianity was declared the state religion by this prince in 988. A cable car starts next to the monument and leads to the Michael monastery (see also. Sacred buildings).
Vitschnoji Slawi Park: “Park of Supreme Glory”
This Kiev park is located in a southeastern direction above the Dnieper River. There is also a cenotaph in the form of an obelisk, which was built in memory of the war victims.
The monastery island is located in front of the city of Dnepropetrovsk – so close that it is connected to the mainland by a small bridge. There is a small monastery on the island, but mainly because of its large number of beaches it is used as a local recreation area for city residents.
Lenin Monument in Yalta
On Lenin Square in Yalta in the Crimea there is a large Lenin monument that can be seen from afar, otherwise the square is framed by the waterfront and a small harbor and a few restaurants.
In Dnepropetrovsk a memorial was erected in honor of the police.
The black sea
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
St. Sophia Cathedral and Lavra Pechersk Pechersk Lavra in Kiev
The city of Kiev lies on both sides of the Dnieper River, which flows into the Black Sea.
Historic city center
The historic city center is located on the right bank of the river and is surrounded by numerous wooded hills that slope steeply to the river. Kiev was the crossing point of the east-west and north-south trade routes and when Christianity was introduced as the state religion under Vladimir in 980, the first hermits settled near the city. The Pecherska Lavra emerged from these hermit settlements.
Lavra Pechersk Cave Monastery The Lavra Pechersk
Cave Monastery is a walled monastery. Inside the complex there is a branching cave system that was created by the monks when the monastery was built. The cave passages connect, among other things, underground churches with the cells of the monks, and the dead were buried in the caves – and historical treasures from the Varangian era are kept there
St. Sophia Cathedral
The St. Sophia Cathedral is a five-aisled cross-domed church, which was commissioned by Yaroslav the Wise in 1037.
St. Sophia Cathedral and Lavra Pechersk Pechersk Monastery in Kiev were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1990
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve
The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve extends downstream of the Danube. It consists of four main arms and several side arms and there are floating islands, lakes, floodplain forests and dry habitats.
At 5,000 km², the Danube Delta is the largest wetland in Europe, home to more than 4,000 animal species and over 1,000 plant species.
UNESCO declared the delta a World Heritage Site and the governments of Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine pledged to protect the wetlands.
Medieval old town of Lviv
The city of Lviv was first mentioned in a document in 1256, and in 1356 it was granted city rights. In the years 1387 and 1772 the Poles ruled here and from 1772 the Habsburgs took over the rule – until 1918. Then Lviv became Polish again until 1939. During the Second World War, the Nazis established a Jewish ghetto in Lviv in which many Jews were murdered.
The old city fortifications with the defense towers and arsenals are well preserved. On the market square are old Renaissance buildings from the 16th century, four fountains with Greek figures from 1793 and the town hall, which was built in the classicist style in the years 1827-1835. One attraction follows the next. Lviv has beautiful churches, many theaters and philharmonics as well as numerous museums. The entire medieval old town of Lviv has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1998
Ruins of Chersonese
This historic ruined city, which today houses an open-air museum, is located on the southwestern tip of the Crimean peninsula. It must not be confused with the city of Cherson, which is around 250 km north-northwest and has 250,000 residents.
The Chersonese heritage includes six sites – ruins and farmland, divided into different rectangular plots of equal size. The cultural site also includes vineyards that produced wine until the 15th century, which was then exported. A Roman water supply system and Christian monuments are also part of the UNESCO heritage. The “Chersonese Games” take place annually in the historical amphitheater.
Chersonese was founded in 422 BC. BC as a Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Seafounded in Crimea. At that time the city was called “Herakleia”. It should be mentioned that already about 30,000 years ago people lived in caves in the Crimea near Chersonese.
In order to arm themselves against enemies, the Greek founders built fortresses and built a port. The city lies behind small mountains in the southwest on the largest bay of Sevastopol in the Crimea on the Black Sea.
Cherson was also the place of exile for Pope Martin I (600-655), who died there in 655. Emperor Justinian II (669- 711) of Byzantium was arrested by his opponents in 695 because of an intrigue and his nose was then publicly cut off.Then he was exiled to Chersonese, from where he escaped in 699.
Greeks, Romans and Byzantines, among others, lived here, whose rule lasted until 1204. In the 14th century, Chersonese was destroyed by Mongolian nomads, so that only ruins remained.
When Sevastopol was founded in the 18th century, the ruins of Chersonese were left standing, but the Black Sea Fleet of the USSR built military facilities in the area, with some ruins being destroyed.
The ruins of Chersonese were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in June 2013.
Wooden churches in the Carpathian Mountains
The 16 wooden churches of the Unesco World Heritage are located on the eastern edge of Eastern Europe.
They were built between the 16th and 19th centuries by the parishes of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Greek Catholic Church.
The churches are closed by square or octagonal roofs or domes. It should be noted that the churches rest on stone foundations with the roof and outer walls covered with shingles. Inside you can find large murals. There are cemeteries around the churches.
Thirteen of the 16 churches are still used today as places of worship, while the other three (Radruż, Rohatyn and Drohobych) serve as museums. These churches are considered to be outstanding examples of the former wooden construction of the Orthodox Church in the Slavic countries, which have survived to this day.
This world cultural heritage is transnational to Poland. The wooden churches were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in June 2013.