Uzbekistan: holidays, climate, national customs
|January 1||New Year|
|8th of March||Womens day|
|March 21||spring Festival|
|May 9||day of the victory|
|September 1||independence Day|
|December 8||Constitution Day|
Source: Countryaah – Uzbekistan Holidays
There are also various Islamic holidays in Uzbekistan that change every year.
Regular cultural events
Uzbek folk traditions and festivals such as Nawruz (beginning of spring), Lola-bairam (flower festival), Pachta-bairam (cotton festival) and Hosil-bairam (harvest festival) are celebrated regularly every year.
The international music festival “Sharq taronalari” (Melodies of the Orient) has been celebrated in Samarkand every two years since 1997. Participants include artists and musicians from many countries around the world. The international festival for modern music and theater, IlchomXX The international festival for symphonic music in Tashkent has been held annually since 1998.
Regular sporting events
- The Kurash, an old national tradition of wrestling that goes back to three thousand years, is given special attention in Uzbekistan.
- Taekwondo and other martial arts are also very popular.
- The football has become increasingly popular in recent years. There are currently 36 soccer teams in Uzbekistan.
- The mountains near Tashkent are an ideal area for skiing.
The best time to travel to Uzbekistan
The ideas of what is meant by a particularly favorable travel climate depend on a number of factors. For example, cultural travelers see the climate very differently than people who want to spend a pure beach holiday, for example. The state of health or age can also play an important role. Therefore, our travel time recommendations are divided into the following two categories:
For sun-hungry people
For people who like to enjoy a lot of sun and for whom higher temperatures do not cause any problems, the late spring and summer are particularly suitable for a stay in the country:
For people who prefer a temperate climate
People who prefer a temperate climate and lower temperatures should better use the beginning of spring and autumn to stay in Uzbekistan.
It should be mentioned that the winters here can be extremely cold and require appropriate clothing
|Month||Average number of rainy days||Mean maximum temperatures in (°C)||Mean minimum temperatures in (°C)|
|January||07-09||02-04||-05 to -07|
|February||07-09||11-13||-02 to -04|
|December||07-09||6-8||-01 to -30|
In Uzbekistan, one should behave according to the customs of devout Muslims: shorts or sleeveless tops should not be worn in public, touch or tenderness between men and women is not tolerated in public.
One should behave cautiously towards local women and under no circumstances shake hands without being asked.
When entering a building, you take off your shoes.
The left hand is considered unclean, so only the right hand is used for eating or greeting.
In Uzbekistan there are teahouses and tea gardens in which only men sit together to drink tea, play music and get intoxicated with the legal drug “naswar”, a type of chewing tobacco.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Presents the way that UZ stands for the nation of Uzbekistan as a two-letter acronym.
Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva are old trading cities on the historic Silk Road, which are characterized by a remarkable architecture.
With the blue domes, the glazed tiles and the high minarets made of yellow adobe bricks, they look like they did centuries ago.
There are more than 400 architectural monuments in Uzbekistan, many of which – especially in the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Shakhrizabz – have been recognized by UNESCO as important objects of world culture.
Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, lies north of the Silk Road on the border with Kazakhstan, in the valley of the Tschirtschik River.
In the heart of the city there are very beautiful buildings of old Uzbekistani architecture.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Historical Center Itchan-Kala of the city of Ditchan-Kala (1990)
Itchan Kala is the old town of Khiva and is separated from the rest of the city by a wall.
The old town has around 50 monuments and around 250 old houses that date from the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Djuma Mosque was founded in the 10th century and rebuilt in the years 1788-1789.
The city wall of Itchan Kala has four gates on each side of the rectangular fortress one.
The historic center of Itchan-Kala of the city of Ditchan-Kala was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1990.
Shakhrisyabz Historic Center (2000)
Shakhrisabz is a green city and is dominated by the ruins of the Ak Serai Palace. The Asian ruler and conqueror Timur (1336-1405) – also known as Tamerlane – built the “White Palace” in 1379. It should be mentioned that Timur is considered the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Persia. There are only ruins left of the two entrance towers of the palace. Between the 65 m high towers was a 40 m high and 22 m wide archway.
The blue domes of the Kok Gumbaz Mosque have been preserved and can be seen from afar. This was built in 1436 as a Friday mosque, and the Koran school Dorut Tilovat was founded at the same time. The bones of some of his relatives lie in the mausoleum complex. The grave slabs are well preserved. Timur had a crypt built for himself in the Dorus Siadat complex. It was not until 1943 that children playing discovered the complex. The historic center of Shakhrisyabz was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2000
Samarkand – the intersection of world cultures (2001)
Samarkand lies on the Zarafshan River and is the second largest city in Uzbekistan. The city has a history of over 2,500 years. The city was conquered many times, for example by Alexander the Great, by the Arabs, by Genghis Khan and by Tamerlane. So the culture became a melting pot of Iranian, Indian, Mongolian and also Western culture.
Samarkand as the intersection of world cultures was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001
Silk Road in the Tian Shan Mountains (2014)
The Silk Road crosses borders and comprises the following core areas.
– the province of Xinjiang in China
– the north of India
– the northern parts of Pakistan
– Iran’s Khorasan province in the northeast of the country
The Silk Road is an old caravan route. According to our era, it has been known since the year zero.
The Silk Road led from China to West Asia and India, bypassing the Gobi Desert. For example, the cities of Antioch and Damascus became rich through constant trade with other countries – and also gained political importance.
City-states such as Turfan and Chotan emerged along the Silk Road.
A trip from China to the Mediterranean took about three to four years. In this way, China supplied silk, glass and precious metals, among other things. In return, cultivated plants were brought to China from the west.
The tracks of the later railways were largely laid along the old Silk Road. It is hoped that by preserving and renewing the Silk Road, Afghanistan will become a hub between Central and South Asia and the Middle East.
The Silk Road was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2014.
Western Tian Shan Mountains (2016)
The Tian Shan is a high mountain range that stretches across China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The highest mountain in the range is the Dschengisch Tschokusu in Kyrgyzstan with a height of 7,439 m.
Another seven-thousand meter high Khan Tengri, which is located in the center of the Tien Shan Mountains on the border of Kazakhstan with Kyrgyzstan and China, is the highest mountain in Kazakhstan and the second highest in the Central Tien Shan Mountains.
The 60 km long southern Inyltschek glacier with an area of approx. 490 km² has its origin in the firn basin between the two mountains.
The 5,816 m high Pik Semjonow is located on the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The 5,841 m high Bayankol is the highest mountain in the Saryjas chain in the Tian Shan. To the west lies the 5,814 m high Pik Semjonow and to the east the 5,761 m high peak Kazakhstan.
The Western Tian Shan Mountains were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List on July 17, 2016 at the Istanbul Conference. The mountains, which have been designated by UNESCO, cross borders with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
– In English, the mountain range is known as the “Celestial Mountains”.
– It should be mentioned that parts of the mountains in Xinjiang (China) were already registered on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites on June 21, 2013.
Tashkent is the capital of the country. The city has around 2,150,000 residents.
The old town of Tashkent is in the northwest of the city. Here you can still experience the flair of the Orient.
The “Chorsu Bazar” in the old town is one of the largest bazaars in the city, where you can purchase traditional handicrafts, such as folk musical instruments and crèches.
Chigatai is a district in which you can find numerous small restaurants in the inner courtyards of the houses, where you can enjoy typical Uzbek dishes such as shashlik and plov.
Around 350,000 people live in Sarmakant. The city is the capital of the province of the same name.
The following sights are worth a visit:
- the Bibi-Chanum Mosque
- the Registanplatz with the adjoining madrasas:
- the Ulugbek Madrasa (1417–1420)
- the Sher-Dor-Madrasa (1619–1636)
- the Tilya Kori Madrasa (1646–1660)
- the museum and excavations of Afrasiab
- the Gur-Emir mausoleum
- the Shahi Sinda ensemble
- the Khodja Doniyor mausoleum
- the Ulugbeks Observatory and Memorial
- the Hodja Abdu Darun mausoleum
Bukhara (Buxoro) is a city with around 240,000 residents on one of the ancient Silk Roads. Nowadays it is one of the most important commercial and industrial centers of Central Asia.
It is worth noting that most of the city’s residents are Tajiks and speak Tajik as their mother tongue – the Central Asian form of Persian. The international airport is located to the east of the city. Bukhara is connected to the Trans-Caspian Railway between Turkmenistan and Tashkent via the train station in the neighboring town of Kogon. The historic center of the city was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1993.
Xiva (Chiwa) is an oasis city with around 90,000 residents, which contains numerous testimonies to the Islamic past.
The city was founded in the course of the 6th century and was of great strategic importance due to its location on the route connecting India and Europe. Khiva was conquered by the Arabs in the course of the Islamic expansion in 712, which led to the spread of Islam. Ichan Qalʼа, the historic center of Khiva, was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1990
Special buildings and structures
Registan in Samarkand
The Registan in Samarkand is a breathtakingly exciting and magnificent place.
He was the heart of ancient Samarkand. The ensemble of three madrasas is still considered a unique example of the architectural design of the city’s main square.
The three madrasas are the Ulug’bek Madrasa built from 1417 to 1420 on the west side of the square, opposite it is the Sher-Dor Madrasa from 1619 to 1636 and on the north side of the square the Tilya-Kori Madrasa from 1641 to 1660.
East of the Tilya-Kori-Madrasa is the Scheibanid mausoleum from the 15th century. Without the adjacent buildings, the square itself covers an area of around 5,000 m²
Tilya-Kori, on Registan Square in Samarkand
The Tilya-Kori is the middle of the three medresses of the Registan ensemble.
The complex was built between 1646 and 1660 – ten years after the Sher-Dor-Madrasa. The Tilya Kori Madrasa has a two-story main facade and a large, wide courtyard.
The mosque building is in the western part of the courtyard. The main hall of the mosque is richly gilded. Not only was it used to educate students, but it was also a very important mosque for a long time.
Ulugh Beg Madrasa on Registan Square in Samarkand
The Ulugh-Beg-Madrasa was built by Khan Ulugh Beg (1394-1449) between 1417 and 1420 as an Islamic university and science center – especially for astronomy and mathematics.
This madrasa on Registanplatz has a mighty portal with a horseshoe arch and high pillars at its corners. A mosaic panel above the entrance arch is decorated with a geometric ornament. A mosque, classrooms and, on the edge, accommodation for the students are or were located in the square courtyard.
The Ulugh Beg Madrasa, at which up to 70 scholars worked, was considered one of the most prestigious universities in Central Asia in the 15th century and during the reign of Ulugh Berg the madrasa was a center of mathematics and astronomy.
After his death, the madrasa was only continued as a theological college until the late 17th century. After that it was even used as a granary and was largely derelict. In the early 20th century, however, it was reopened as a teaching institution and partially restored.
Sher Dor Madrasa on Registan Square in Samarkand
The Sher-Dor-Madrasa is one of the three madrasas on Registan Square. It was built under Yalangtush Bakhodur – the regent of Samarkand – in the 17th century along with the Sher Dor Madrasa and the Tilya Kori Madrasa on Registan Square.
The plans for the building came from the architect Abdujabor. This madrasa is one of the most valuable buildings in the city because of the harmonious arrangement of its rooms, its finely chiseled pictures and mosaics, as well as its monumentality and symmetry.
Ark Citadel, Bukhara
The Ark Citadel covers an area of around 4 ha = 40,000 m². It is surrounded
by a massive wall – unfortunately a large part of the facility is
in ruins. The remains of a first system go back to the 4th century
, but hardly anything has survived. Over the
centuries, the citadel has been destroyed several times but
rebuilt again and again, most recently under the Scheibanids – an Uzbek dynasty from the
early 16th century founded by Mohammed Scheibani (1451-1510)
During this time, the citadel not only housed the
regent’s palace, but also had a number of other state
institutions, such as B. the coin, apartments of high civil servants,
as well as barracks and farm buildings such as storehouses,
workshops and stables. The regent’s palace was a
brick building that now houses a regional history
museum. To the north of the palace is the Djami or
Dschuma mosque (Friday mosque) built in 1712.
Sitorai Mohi Xosa, Bukhara
Sitorai Mohi Xosa is a castle located in a park about 5 km north of the historical center of the city.
There were two previous buildings, the current building dates from 1912 to 1918 and was built as a summer residence under Alim Khan (1880-1944), the last Emir of Bukhara. Ali Khan was expelled by the Bolsheviks in 1920, which was then made into the Soviet People’s Republic of Bukhara with Samarkand as its capital.
In 1925 the People’s Republic of Bukhara was integrated into the Soviet Union Republic of Uzbekistan. The castle was named after the wife of the emir who had the previous castle built. Nowadays there is a museum of applied arts in which carpets, embroidery, cloth, ceramics, porcelain, jewelry and weapons are
Mustaqillik Maydoni (Independence Square)
The origins of the square go back to the 19th century. The approximately 120,000 m² square has its current appearance after extensive redesign between 2003 and 2006.
Nowadays there are numerous government buildings here, a number of fountains and especially the central independence monument delight the visitor.
At the top of the monument, which commemorates independence from the then Soviet Union in 1991, is a bronze globe with the outlines of the country. A mother with her child has been sitting on the base since 2005 – as a symbol of the country. There is also an avenue in memory of those who fell from Uzbekistan during the Second World War.
The Friendship Bridge between Termez (Uzbekistan) and Mazar-i-Sharif (Afghanistan) crosses the Amu Darya. It is about 800 m long.
Palace The Tasch-Hauli Palace in Khiva is a masterpiece of oriental architecture.
The palace of the last ruling emir of Bukhara is called Setare-je-Mah-e-Chase – “the place where the moon meets the stars”.
Tashkent transmission tower
With a height of 375 m, the Tashkent TV tower is the highest TV tower in Central Asia. It is one of the city’s landmarks.
The tower was officially opened on January 15, 1985 after a construction period of around six years. Both modern and traditional Uzbek style elements were used in the tower and it is reminiscent of a rocket taking off. Three striking support pillars form the base of the tower.
At the intersection of the pillars, two revolving restaurants invite you to visit. On the one hand, there is the Blue Restaurant at a height of 105 m, which is kept in Uzbek style and is decorated with paintings depicting scenes from the history of Uzbekistan. On the other hand, there is the Rote Restaurant at a height of 110 m, which now represents the modern western world. The tower has three elevators
Poi Kalon, Bukhara
Poi Kalon is an ensemble in the historic center of the city – southeast of the Ark Citadel. It comprises the following four structures:
the Kalon Minaret,
the Kalon Mosque,
and the Emir-Alim-Khan-Madrasa.
Kalon Minaret, Bukhara
The Kalon Mosque is located in the historical center of Bukhara and is part of the Poi Kalon ensemble. It is opposite the Mir Arab Madrasa. Between the mosque and the madrasa is the Kalon minaret, which is connected to the mosque by a bridge.
The mosque has a length of 127 m and a width of 78 m, making it the second largest mosque in Central Asia after the Bibi-Chanum Mosque in Samarkand. It was completed in 1514. The approximately 50 m high minaret was built around 1127. It was not only used for religious purposes, it was a watchtower and a sign that was visible from afar and showed the caravans the way into the city. Up until the beginning of the 20th century, convicted people were thrown down here – in a sack.
Konya Ark, Khiva (Khiva)
Konya Ark (Old Fortress) is the fortress in the historic old town Itchan-Kala (Ichan Qalʼа) of Khiva. It is located on the 10 m high outer wall of the historic old town, which was the last resting place for caravans before they crossed the desert to Iran. The fortress covers an area of around 1.2 ha = 12,000 m².
It was built in the 17th century by Khan Muhammad Erenke, who ruled from 1687 to 1688. In the course of the following decades the fortress was expanded and after about 100 years it was considered a “city within a city”. The Khan’s mosque, his residence, the supreme court of the khanate, the powder mill, the mint, the chancellery, the harem as well as the stables and the main guard were located here. You enter the fortress from the old town through a fortress gate, which is flanked by two towers with blue tiles.
The facility has been part of the Ichan Qalʼа UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.
Tasch Hauli Palace, Khiva (Chiva)
The Tasch Hauli Palace (Toshxauli Palace) is located in the east of the old town Ichan Qalʼа (Ichan Kala) of Khiva (Chiva). It was built under Khan Alla Kuli – who ruled from 1825 to 1842 – between 1830 and 1840 together with the madrasa Alla Kuli Khan, a caravanserai and the merchant and shop arcade Tim.
The palace has a rectangular floor plan with three courtyards. In the northern part is the harem. A large and branched number of corridors and corridors connect the courtyards and buildings with one another. The two entrances to the palace are on its west and south sides. Bricks were used to build the palace and the perimeter walls are adorned with small battlements. As part of the historical old town Itchan Kala of Khiva, the palace was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1990.
City wall, Xiva (Chiva)
The well-preserved city wall of Xiva (Chiva) with its four gates encompasses the historic old town Ichan Qalʼа (Itchan-Kala). Like the entire old town, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.
The old town of Itchan-Kala (Inner Fortress) has an extension of about 650 m in north-south direction and 400 m in east-west direction. It is almost completely enclosed by a city wall made of clay with a total length of about 2,200 m. The wall has a height of up to 10 m. There is a battlement on the inside. A crenellated wreath and numerous loopholes served to fight off attackers.
Opera, theater, convention center
Congress Center in Tashkent
The congress and event center on Amir Timur Square in Tashkent opened in autumn 2009.
The 50 m high building with its domed roof was built from Thassos marble, among other things. It has a usable area of around 40,000 m²
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theater
The architecture of this building in Tashkent impresses with its facade in the style of neoclassicism, which is surmounted by stalagmites in the Moorish style.
The building is characterized by Uzbek, Islamic and classical art and is worth a visit for that alone.
The Ilkhom Theater (Theater) is located in Tashkent and was founded in 1976 as the first independent theater in the Soviet Union by the Uzbek Mark Weil (1952-2007).
Ark Citadel The Ark
Citadel in Bukhara, which was once the seat of the country’s rulers and government, dates back to the 7th to 8th centuries.
Today the building houses the local history museum.
The History Museum (History Museum) presents the history of the Uzbek people.
The museum is located in Tashkent near Tamerlane Square (Amir Temur Maydoni).
Museum of Applied Arts
The Museum of Applied Arts in Tashkent dates back to the Soviet Union and exhibits numerous Uzbek objects from the fields of embroidery, pottery, sculpture and jewelry.
But you can also find musical instruments and various textiles here.
But the museum building in its Uzbek architectural style is worth a visit.
Museum of Fine Arts
The Museum of Fine Arts in Tashkent exhibits a collection of pre-Islamic antiquities, Buddhist statues and wall paintings, as well as a collection of Uzbek traditional arts.
You can also find works by Russian and French artists here.
Museum of Samarkand
The museum in the city of Samarkant gives a good overview of objects from the ancient sites of Termez as well as exhibits from Uzbek culture.
The museum is fully called “Museum of the History, Culture and Fine Arts of Samarkand”.
Opened in 1976, the museum is the oldest in the country.
Mosques and Koran schools
Bibi-Chanum Mosque The Bibi-Chanum
Mosque in Samarkand is a masterpiece of medieval Uzbek architecture and art. Bibi-Chamum, which was modeled on the thousand-column mosque in Delhi and on which 500 stonemasons worked at times, was considered the largest and most beautiful mosque in the Orient.
Barak Chan madrasah in Tashkent
The Barak Chan madrasah dates back to buildings from the 15th and 16th centuries. First the mausoleum was built, which is now in the eastern part of the complex. The Hanaka mausoleum with its two domes was built in 1530 for the ruler of Tashkent Sujundsch Han Scheibani. Around the middle of the 16th century, the ensemble was rebuilt into today’s madrasah, the buildings of which are grouped around a large square. A madrasah is the name given to a school or teaching establishment for Islamic studies.
Koran schools Schir-Dos and Tillja-Kann
The Koran schools Schir-Dos and Tillja-Kann in Samarkand stand out due to their beautiful architecture.
The Mir-Arab-Madrasa is an Islamic educational center that opened in 1536. It is located in the historical part of the city and is part of the Poi Kalon ensemble – southeast of the Ark Citadel. When the Bolsheviks came to power in 1920, teaching was discontinued, but resumed in 1945.
The building is 73 m long and 37 m wide. The inner courtyard measures around 37 x 33 m. On both sides of the entrance there is a high room with a drum as a link between the building and a dome: to the north there is a tomb with the empty honorary grave (cenotaph) of Ubaidullah Khan and the tomb of Sheikh Abdullah Yamani.
Ulug’bek Madrasa in Bukhara
The Ulug’bek Madrasa was a Muslim educational institution and is located in the historical center of Bukhara about 100 m east of the Poi Kalon building complex. To the south of it – across the street – is the Abdulaziz Khan Madrasa, which is about 250 years younger.
The Ulug’bek Madrasa was built at the beginning of the 15th century under the Timurid Khan Ulugh Beg and completed in 1417. It is worth mentioning that it is around 3 years older than the madrasa of the same name in Samakqand. This makes it the oldest preserved madrasa in Central Asia.
The Ulug’bek Madrasa has a length of around 53 m and a length of about 42 m. The main facade has a central pishtak, which takes up about a third of the width of the facade. A Pishtak is a large main entrance that surrounds a high portal arch.
Emir Alim Khan Madrasa, Bukhara
The Emir-Alim-Khan Madrasa is an Islamic education center located in the historical center of the city. It is part of the Poi Kalon ensemble, which is located southeast of the Ark Citadel. The structure was not erected until the beginning of the 20th century under Alim Khan – the last emir of the Emirate of Bukhara (1880-1944), who was expelled by the Bolsheviks in 1920.
Bolo Hovuz Mosque, Bukhara
The Bolo Hovuz Mosque is located in the northwest of the historical center of the city of Bukhara, on the western side of the Registans opposite the Ark Citadel.
In front of the mosque there is a water basin with a length of 20 m each and a minaret to the side of it. The water basin in front of the mosque was originally one of the many artificially created ponds that used to serve as a water supply – but only a few have survived. The mosque was built on the pond in 1712 – and a small minaret was built next to the mosque in 1917.
The mosque consists of a building with a dome with a floor area of 27 × 20 m and a front, 42 m wide porch with an approximately 10 m long open vestibule. The ceiling of the vestibule is supported by two rows of relatively thin 12.50 m high wooden columns with carved stalactite capitals.
Mag’oki Attori Mosque in Bukhara
The Mag’oki Attori Mosque is located in the historical center of Bukhara (Buxoro). The mosque was built in the course of the 9th and 10th centuries on a temple from the pre-Islamic period, making it one of the oldest mosques in Central Asia that are still preserved.
In the course of the 12th century the mosque was rebuilt, newly clad and also got a new main facade. In the course of the following centuries the mosque disappeared more and more into the ground, but was renovated around the middle of the 15th century and received a new portal at floor level.
In the early 1930s, the mosque was uncovered and extensively restored. Nowadays the building is used as a carpet museum and is now over 4 m below the surface of the earth. It has a rectangular floor plan of 12 × 7.5 m and carries a flat roof with two octagonal tambours on which there are octagonal domes. Tambours are understood as an intermediate building above a mostly square structure and its roof consisting of a dome
Labi Hovuz, Bukhara
Labi Hovuz is an ensemble of buildings that includes an artificial water basin, a park and the Nodir-Devonbegi-Chanaqa and Nodir-Devonbegi-Madrasa.
The Nodir-Devonbegi-Chanaqa is a Chanaqa in the center of Bukhara and is part of the Labi Hovuz building ensemble. It was completed in 160 and is located opposite the Nodir Devonbegi Madrasa, from which it is separated by a pool of water and a park. A Chanaqa (Tekke) is the center of an Islamic Sufi brotherhood and means something like protection or asylum.
The Nodir-Devonbegi-Madrasa is an Islamic educational center and is located in the center of Bukhara. Between it and the Nodir-Devonbegi-Chanaqa there is a water basin and a park. It was built around 1620, making it the youngest building in the Labi Hovuz ensemble. The Madrisa has a square base with a length of 70 m each. The large inner courtyard is enclosed by two-story pointed arch arcades with entrances to the students’ residential units.
– Water basin
The water basin is now around 42 m long, 36 m wide and 5 m deep. It is located together with a park between the Nodir-Devonbegi-Chanaqa and the Nodir-Devonbegi-Madrasa. It was laid out in 1620 by Nodir Devonbegi, the uncle and grand vizier of Imam Quli Khan, and was supplied with water twice a month with the help of a canal from the 870 km long river Serafshan.
Chor Minor, Bukhara
The Minor Choir is a two-story brick building. It covers a footprint of 19 × 9 m and has a pointed arched dome reinforced with ribs.
Originally, the building was part of a madrasa built in 1807 by Xalfa Niyozqul, a wealthy Turkmen merchant. This madrasa was 92 m long and 40 m wide, of which only the gatehouse and the adjoining single-storey extensions have survived. At the four corners of the choir minor are 17 m high towers, which were only used for decoration and have domes made of light blue glazed bricks. Chor Minor’s architecture is more reminiscent of Indian models than Islamic architecture.
Abdulaziz Khan Madrasa, Bukhara
The Abdulaziz Khan Madrasa was a Muslim educational institution and is located in the historic center of the city around 100 m east of the Poi Kalon building complex. Opposite it is the Ulug’bek Madrasa.
The Abdulaziz Khan Madrasa was built in 1652 under the Janid Khan Abd al-Aziz, who ruled from 1647 to 1680. It was built almost 250 years before the Ulug’bek Madrasa. The Abdulaziz Khan Madrasa is around 60 m long and 48 m wide. The main facade has a central pishtak with an ivan.
The upper end of the ivan is formed by a muqarnas – a stalactite cornice that is usually used as the upper end of niches or at the transition between a square base and a dome. A Pishtak is a large main entrance in the form of a brick portal frame that surrounds a high portal arch. An iwan describes a high hall that is open on one side and is covered by a barrel vault.
Medrese-Amin-Chan, Khiva (Khiva)
The Medrese-Amin-Chan was built around the mid-19th century. At the time, the madrasah was the largest Islamic educational institution in Khiva (Khiva). The building is two-story. The four corners are bordered by cylindrical towers and the entrance hall is roofed by domes. On the sides of the entrance are the mosque and some classrooms. Inside the madrasah there is a library and an office of the high religious court.
Juma Mosque, Khiva (Chiva)
The Juma Mosque (Friday Mosque) is the Great Mosque of Khiva (Chiva). It is centrally located in the historic old town Ichan Qalʼа and has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990. It was built by the Khan Abdurahman Mihtar in the late 18th century in place of an old mosque from the 10th century. Their appearance is in itself very unusual for mosques. The building is a low-rise building with no domes, arched entrances or portals. Its ceiling is supported by wooden pillars. Daylight penetrates the mosque through three ceiling openings, which creates a special atmosphere. The open inner courtyard made it possible to use the building not only as a place of prayer but also as a place of assembly and teaching. The building is quite unique in all of Central Asia.
Islom Xo´ja minaret, Xiva (Chiva)
The Islom-Xo’ja-Minaret (Islam-Khodja-Minoret) is located in the old town of Xiva (Chiva) next to the medrese of the same name, and with a height of 44 m and a diameter of 10 m at the foundation is the tallest building in the City. However, with increasing height, the diameter of the tower decreases.
Like belts, numerous rings made of blue and white ceramic, which are replaced by ocher-colored bricks, surround the building. On the minaret there is a rotunda with arched windows and a golden top. Visitors can reach the top via a spiral staircase, from where there is an almost unique view of the city and its sights.
The minaret was built under Khan Said Muhammad Rahim II, who ruled from 1863 to 1910. It was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1990 as part of the old town Ichan Qalʼа
Kalta Minor minaret, Khiva (Khiva)
The Kalta Minor minaret is a tower in Itchan-Kala (Ichan Qalʼа,), the historic old town of Khiva (Khiva). The tower is an unfinished minaret, as the translation of the name “short minaret” indicates. The minaret stands in front of the Muhammad Amin Khan madrasah and has been part of the Itchan-Kala UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.
The minaret is particularly noticeable because of its glazed blue ceramic tiles and is the symbol of the city. The tower is around 29 m high and has a diameter of around 14 m at its base. Originally the minaret was supposed to be 80 m high and thus the highest minaret in the Islamic world. Construction had started in 1850, but after the regent of Khiva Khan Muhammad Amin, who ruled between 1845 and 1855, was killed in battle in 1855, the building remained unfinished.
Kaffal Shashi mausoleum in Tashkent
The Kaffal Shashi mausoleum was built for Imam Abu Bakr Kaffal Shashi, who died in 926 AD, but it no longer exists in its original state. The present mausoleum was built by Gulam Husain in 1542 AD but rebuilt in the 19th century. it has several domes and a portal. To the south of the main building, in a courtyard, south of the main building, there are more tombs from later times. In addition to the mausoleum, there is a house in which Hodja Ahrori-vali, a follower of Iman Kaffal Shashi, lived
Ismail Samani Mausoleum
The Ismail Samani Mausoleum in Bukhara dates from the 9th and 10th centuries and is considered to be the oldest Islamic building in Central Asia.
The Necropolis Shah-i-Sinda is home to a large number of mausoleums from different centuries.
The Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand is the tomb of Timur Lenk (1336-1405) – a Central Asian military leader of a Turkish-Mongolian tribe based in Samarkand. Furthermore, members of his family and some people from his environment – including Ulug Beg, Schah-Ruch and Mir Said Berke – were in the mausoleum.
It was created in 1403/1404 and is an outstanding example of a double-shell dome, which represents the center of the system over a high drum.
The original building was too low for Timur and therefore he had it rebuilt and enlarged in a short time. Under the Timurid prince and astronomer Ulug Beg (1394-1449), a large ivan – a high hall open on one side and covered by a barrel vault – was built around 1434 and the minarets at the mausoleum were connected by an arcade panel.
Chashmai Ayyub Mausoleum, Bukhara
The Chashmai Ayyub mausoleum was probably built around 1380 under the rule of Timur (1336-1405). The mausoleum is in a paved square west of the Ark Citadel. The building is 21 × 15 m in size and consists of four chambers, each crowned with a dome. Nowadays there is a museum here that deals with the water supply of Bukhara from ancient times to modern times.
Samanid mausoleum, Bukhara
The Samanid mausoleum is located west of the old town. It was built a few
years before Ismoyil Somoniy’s death in 907,
making it the oldest surviving structure in Central Asia. The building had
a strong influence on subsequent Islamic architecture.
The Shohizinda is a city of the dead or burial. The well-preserved structures are located in the northeastern part of the city of Samarkand on the slope of the Afrasiab valley.
According to legend, the cousin of the Prophet Mohammed (570-632), Qutham ibn āAbbās (619-688) was buried here.
The Shohizinda ensemble was expanded from the 11th to the 19th centuries and now has more than 20 buildings, with the oldest structures dating from the 11th and 12th centuries. However, only the foundations and tombstones remain of them.
The majority of the buildings date from the 14th and 15th centuries, when the Timurid nobles were buried here. The reconstruction work between the 16th and 19th centuries did not significantly change the tombs.
The main part of the ensemble is the Kussam-ibn-Abbas complex, which is located in the northeastern part of the city of the dead and consists of various buildings, the oldest being the Kussam-ibn-Abbas mausoleum and a mosque from the 16th century.
Pahlavon-Machmud Mausoleum, Xiva (Chiva)
The mausoleum is the tomb of the poet and folk hero Pachlavon-Machmud (1247-1326). Around or in the mausoleum are also the tombs of the Khans of Khiva (Khiva). In 1825 all rooms were covered with colored ceramic tiles, which have a pattern typical of Xiva. The dome of the building was covered with turquoise-blue enamel bricks and the portal was clad with colored ceramic.
The following universities can be found in Uzbekistan:
- University of World Economy and Diplomacy
- Tashkent financial institute
- Tashkent State Institute of Law
- Westminster International University Tashkent
- Management Development Institute of Singapore
- The Politecnico di Torino
- National University of Uzbekistan
- Tashkent State Institute of Culture
- Tashkent Institute of Architecture and Construction
- Tashkent State Agrarian University
- The State Conservatory of Uzbekistan
- Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute
- Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration
- Namangan Engineering-Pedagogical Institute
- Jizzakh Polytechnical Institute
- Karshi Engineering Economic Institute
- Termez State University
- Fergana Politechnic Institute
The Aral Sea is an example of a dire human-made environmental disaster.
The lake, which was approx. 68,000 km² in size until around 1960 and has no natural runoff, has meanwhile dried up so far that it has disintegrated into several separate lakes, including the southern “Great Aral Sea” and the northern “Small Aral Sea”.
In 1960 the lake had a volume of approx. 1,090 km³ – in 2007 it was 75 km³. The area of the two lakes is around 8,500 km². The northern Small Aral Sea belongs to Kazakhstan, while the southern “Great Aral Sea” belongs to Uzbekistan.
Places that used to be on its bank and where, for example, fishing was carried out, are now far away inland. The main reason for the drying up of the lake is that the two main tributaries, Amu Darya and Syr Darya, have been drawing ever larger amounts of water to irrigate the areas under cultivation for cotton and other agricultural products since around 1929. In addition, the salt content of the lake has increased significantly, so that fewer and fewer fish can exist there.
It is encouraging, however, that efforts have recently been made to save at least the Little Aral Sea – so far with some success. However, its rescue operation is at the expense of the other part of the lake.
National Park Zomin or Zaamin
The Zomin or Zaamin National Park was established in 1976 and covers an area of 482 km². The park was established in 1926 as the Guralash Nature Reserve on the northern slopes of the western part of the Turkestan Mountains in the valleys of the Kulsoy, Guralash, Baikungur and Aldashmansoy rivers. In particular, it served the preservation, restoration and development of unique juniper ecosystems in the mountains.
The park forms, among other things, a sanctuary for the Siberian ibex.
The highest mountain in the park is Mount Shaukartau, 4030 m high. Other mountains are the 3,945 m high Iskander Berg and the 3,925 m high Bergholster.
In the park you will find foxes, snow leopards, Siberian goats, Turkestan lynxes, white-clawed bears, wolves and Central Asian ibexes.
Birds here include eagles, falcons, thrushes, wood pigeons, black storks, lovebirds, Turkestan owls and Turkestan starlings, as well as the juniper grosbeak.
The local plants include, for example, honeysuckle, geraniums, immortelle, crocuses, St. John’s wort, carnations, rose root, saffron, rowan berries, willowherb and wild apples and pears
Ugam-Chatkal National Park
The Ugam-Chatkal National Park was established in 1992 and covers an area of 6,685 km².
The park was created primarily to protect the forests and the unique ecosystem of the Tien Shan highlands. Tourists here like to visit the Chatkal Valley with the artificial Charvak Lake, which is Tashkent’s main water source and receives its water from the Pskem, Kok-Su and Chatkal rivers.
The highest peak near the lake is the 3,309 m tall Great Chimgan. Its mountain slopes are covered with snow from November to July and waterfalls in the region with a height of 30 to 40 m delight visitors. You can find mountain birches, wild roses and numerous herbs here. The animals include white-clawed bears, wild boars and Menzibira marmots.