Puerto Rico, the Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean and an autonomous part of the United States; 9104 km2, 3.67 million residents (2012). The capital and largest city is San Juan.
Puerto Rico is the easternmost of the Greater Antilles. By virtue of transfers from the US federal government and an extensive industrialization program, the island has had significant economic growth since World War II, and the material standard of living as well as the level of education and health are now among the highest in the Caribbean. The vast majority of the residents are Spanish-speaking and belong to a Latin American culture.
Population. With just over 400 residents per. km2, Puerto Rico is densely populated. Nearly a third live within the metropolitan area of San Juan, the rest mainly in Ponce, Mayagüez, Arecibo and other port cities. The majority of the population are descendants of colonial-era Spanish immigrants; approximately 20% are black and of mixed African-European descent. In step with increased prosperity and longer life expectancy, both the birth rate and population growth have been halved during the last approximately 30 years. The annual growth rate is now below 1%, and the average life expectancy is 80 years for women and 72 years for men. Pga. a large emigration after World War II, there are today about 2 million. Puerto Ricans in the United States. Since the 1960's, however, the flow has diminished, and especially second-generation Puerto Ricans, who were born and raised in New York (locally:nuyoricans), has returned in increasing numbers.
Profession. Where Puerto Rico until the first half of 1900-t. was dominated by small farms and plantation operations (sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, etc.), the industry has gained far greater importance since the 1950's; it contributes 63% of GDP and employs approximately 1/4 of the labor force (1995). The remaining employment is found mainly in trade (especially retail) and in the public and private services, including a rapidly growing tourism with over 4 million. visitors per year.
The basis for industrial growth, initiated by the development program Operation Bootstrap in 1948, has been a cheap workforce and a well-developed infrastructure (roads, ports, energy supply, etc.) in combination with tax benefits, protective tariffs and other favorable conditions for especially American companies. Most large factories are so branches of US companies whose production is particularly focused on the domestic market (about 9/10of exports go to the United States). The most important industries are electronics, pharmaceuticals, sports and leisure clothing, food and the chemical industry, including the plastics industry. However, since the mid-1990's, the rate of investment has fallen. The export industry has lost approximately 36,000 jobs and unemployment has risen to up to 20%. Among the reasons is a growing competition from especially Mexican low-wage industries, as a result of the adoption of NAFTA (1992) and the fact that in 1996 the United States decided to limit the tax advantages of American companies in the country.
Nature.The central part of the island is mountainous with the highest point Cerro de Punta (1338 m) in the Cordillera Central. The coastal plains, which constitute the main agricultural areas, are characterized to varying degrees by river erosion and deposits and by the nature of the subsoil; for example, the limestone layers to the NW form a typical karst landscape, whose underground rivers and caves can be seen in Rio Camuy Cave Park. The coast alternates between sandy beaches and low-lying swamp areas, which are covered by mangroves in Aguirre Forest to the south. Apart from the southern part of the island, which lies in the rain shelter of the rainy northeast Passage, Puerto Rico was covered by rainforest until deforestation in the 1800's. Of the current forest area of approximately 15% of the original forest is only a small part, of which the majority is in the nature reserves El Yunque Tropical Rain Forest east of San Juan and Guánica Forest west of Ponce. The island is administratively also to the east the islands of Vieques (da. Crab Island) and Culebra, both of which have ferry connections with the city of Fajardo in Puerto Rico and air connections to San Juan. The climate is tropical with an average annual temperature of 26 °C. The precipitation varies between approximately 900 mm on the south side and 2000 mm on the north side, in some places up to 5000 mm on an annual average. Like the rest of the Caribbean, Puerto Rico is regularly hit by earthquakes and tropical hurricanes June-November.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, French islands off the south coast of Newfoundland in eastern Canada; 242 km2, 7000 residents (2005). The small archipelago, which since 1985 has had the status of collectivité territoriale, is the last remnant of France's possessions in North America. In addition to government subsidies and modest tourism, the economy is based on fisheries, whose catches have been a contentious issue between Canada and France since the adoption of new fishing zones from the 1970's. During the liquor ban in the United States (1920-33), the capital, St. Pierre, was the center of a lucrative smuggling business.
Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands, archipelago and British overseas territory in the Atlantic Ocean SE of the Bahamas and north of Hispaniola; 430 km2, 31,500 residents (2012). The main town is Cockburn Town on Grand Turk. The Caicos Islands form the elevated and southernmost part of the Bahamas, and the more than 2,000 m deep Turkish Islands Passage separates them from the smaller Turks' Lakes; both consist of limestone with karst landscapes. Tropical savannah climate provides a scrubby vegetation; on the southwestern sides of the Caicos Islands there are swamps and mangrove stands. Only 2% of the area is cultivated and the economy is borne by tourism, offshore banking, fisheries and transfers from the UK. The population is of African origin and belongs to various Protestant denominations.
The Turks and Caicos Islands remained under British rule when the Bahamas gained independence in 1973. Until then, the history of the two archipelagos had been administratively linked for periods.
- University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras
- Global Humanistic University
- Universidad Ana G. Méndez - Recinto de Carolina
- Universidad Ana G. Méndez - Recinto de Cupey
- Universidad Ana G. Méndez – Recinto de Gurabo
- Escuela de Negocios Alto Nivel - Universidad Panamericana de Guatemala
- University College of the Caribbean
- University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech)
- Inter American University of Puerto Rico
- INCAE Business School
- IESA - Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración