Indonesia: holidays, climate, national customs
|January 1||New Year|
|January February||Chinese new year|
|January February||Isra’Mi’raj, Muhammad’s resurrection|
|March||Nyepi Hindu holiday, day of silence, which marks the beginning of spring.|
|April 21||Kartini day, women’s day|
|May||Waisak day, Buddhist holiday|
|May June||Idul Adha, Muslim holiday of sacrifice|
|June July||Muharram, Muslim New Year|
|17th August||Independence day|
|August September||Garebeg Maulud, Muhammad’s birthday|
Source: Countryaah – Indonesia Holidays
|February March||Nyale Angel Festival in Lombok|
|February 1st-1st Apri||Pasola Festival in Sumba shows horse fights in East Nusa Tengarra|
|February March||Bau Nyale Putri Mandalika Festival in West Nusa TengarraOnce a year at a full moon before sunrise, seaworms come ashore from the depths of the sea. The locals are waiting to catch these. Stories are told and danced.|
|March||Equator and culture festival on Kalimantan. Malay dances and chants are performed.|
|8-14 March||Taboo Festival on West Sumatra The festival is held to commemorate the death of Muhammad’s grandchildren during the Karbala War.|
|June||Borobudur Festival is a festival with dance events (Ramayana dance).|
|July||Art festival in Bali|
|July 1||Pacu Jalur Festival in Riau on the river. The canoe race is held with Jalur boats, which are cut out of a tree trunk and are approx. 30 m long. The boats are moved by 25-30 rowers.|
|July 1st – 31||Lake Toba Festival in North Sumatra. Traditional boat races, horse races, performances as well as a handicraft exhibition are presented.|
|2nd week of July||Krakatau Festival, races, handicraft exhibitions|
|August September||Bumi Rafflesia Festival in Begkulu, fishing competitions, dance performances and handicraft exhibitions.|
|August||Baliem Festival in Papua, pig races and tribal fights are presented.|
|September||Equator and culture festival on Kalimantan. Malay dances and chants are performed.Erau Festival, tribal dances are performed by the Dayaks in Tenggarong.|
|October||Kesodo Festival in East Java, midnight festival of sacrifices at the crater of Mt. Bromo|
|December January||Reba festival in Bena in Flores, with buffalo offerings and music|
|Late May to early June||International surfing competitions in East Java at Plengkung Beach, approx. 67 km south of Banyuwangi|
|end of June||Traditional speed boat race with an exhibition of traditional Sriwijaya boats.|
The shadow play, Way-ang-Kulit, is an essential part of cultural life in Java and Bali. Although the shadow play is of religious origin, nowadays the traditional myths are used to criticize daily politics. The play is accompanied by Indonesian orchestral music.
The art of batik has been cultivated for generations. Complex patterns and representations are painted onto fabrics using wax. These are then colored, whereby the areas provided with wax retain their original color. This process of wax painting and coloring is repeated in several steps.
The climate of Indonesia is influenced by monsoons and trade winds. The annual amount of precipitation varies from around 710 to 4,150 mm per year.
You should avoid the rainy season, i.e. the months October/November to April, as a travel time.
The best travel time is the dry season from May to September. The Indonesians themselves have holidays towards the end of Ramadan and the main school holidays are from mid-June to mid-July. Those who want to avoid these times should visit the country from May to June or from September to October.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Presents the way that IN stands for the nation of Indonesia as a two-letter acronym.
Sights on Java
Archaeological dig sites
Sangiran Early Man Site
The area is located in Central Java and is part of the Unesco World Heritage Site.
During excavations between 1936 and 1941, the first human fossils were discovered here.
The Sangiran area has been inhabited for 1.5 million years and, with its numerous finds, is of extreme importance for research into human history. The finds contribute significantly to the understanding of human development from the early Pleistocene to the present day. The Pleistozaen covers the time from around 1.8 million BC. until 11,500.
Sacred buildings and sacred institutions
Borobudur Temple Complex
The Buddhist temple from the 8th – 9th centuries is located in Central Java. Along with Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the facility is one of the most important Buddhist facilities in Southeast Asia.
The temple complex has three levels. The pyramidal base, which consists of five concentric, square-shaped terraces, the trunk of a cone with three round platforms and the top in the form of a monumental stupa. The walls are decorated with fantastic bas-reliefs, which total an area of 2,500 m 2.
72 further stupas are grouped around this central complex, each containing a Buddha statue. The temple complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Prambanan Temple Compounds
The temple complex is located in the province of Central Java and was built in the 10th century AD. It is the largest Hindu temple complex that was dedicated to the god Shiva in Indonesia. The complex consists of three temples, which with their figural decorations tell the stories of the gods Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma. The temple complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The name comes from Sanskrit and means residence of the gods. The plain lies at a height of 200 m and is surrounded by volcanoes. The oldest Hindu temples in Java were built here in the 7th – 8th centuries. Of the original 400 temples, only eight remain. The region is still geothermally active, with hot mud pools and geysers abundant
National Museum (Museum Pusat)
It is also called Gedung Gajah, meaning “elephant building”, because there is a bronze elephant there, which the Thai King Rama V presented as a gift in 1871. The museum to the west of Independence Square is considered the largest and best-equipped museum in all of Southeast Asia. It contains a collection that gives detailed information about volcanoes, islands, peoples and their customs as well as traditional arts and crafts on all the islands of today’s Indonesia. There is also a collection of Hindu works of art from Java and porcelain from the Ming, Han and Tang periods. A ceramics department can also be admired. It has exhibits like 2,000 year old pottery and old china.
The prehistoric section offers the remains of the Java man, i.e. Homo erectus, numerous stone inscriptions and cult objects as well as Buddhist and Hindu statues.
Textile Museum of Indonesia
The museum is located in Jakarta and shows the wealth of the country’s varied textile art.
Museum of the Shadow
Play The museum in Jakarta has a collection of shadow theater figures, masks, puppets and musical instruments not only from Indonesia, but also from neighboring countries
Badui Villages in Banten, the municipality can be reached via a 10 km road from the villages of Cibolegar or Cibungur in the Leuwidamar District. The villages are organized like an Indian mandala. Kota is the old Batavia that is in what is now Jakarta.
On April 16, 2005, the foundation stone was laid for this gigantic tower. It should be completed in 2009 and with its 558 m it will then be the second tallest building in the world. (Only the 577 m high Moscow TV tower will surpass it. The CN Tower in Toronto will then
relegate it to the third tallest building. It measures 553 m.) Monumen Nasional (Tugu Monas, National Monument)
This 137 meter high tower stands in Central Jakarta and symbolizes the struggle for Indonesian independence. Its construction began in 1961 under Sukarno and could only be completed in 1975 under his successor Suharto. It is crowned by a flame-shaped bronze figure weighing 14.5 tons, which has been coated with 35 kg of gold. Visitors can take a lift up to the platform and enjoy the wonderful view of Medan Merdeka Park, the Istiqlal Mosque and the whole city. Inside the monument there is still the Declaration of Independence exhibition, and various pictures show the history of Indonesia.
Toko Merah (Imhoff House)
This building is the house of the German-born Governor General Gustav Wilhelm von Imhoff (1705-1750) from Lower Saxony. The elongated red brick building is currently used as an office building, but can be visited. The large hall with its double stairs and the original furniture, some of which is still there, are particularly impressive.
Independence Building (Gedung Pancasila)
This building stands on the Pejambon. It was built around 1830 as the residence of the military commander in classicism style. The “Volksraad” has resided there since 1918. Its members were composed mainly of the white colonial population; However, the council did not have any special political powers. In 1945 a committee set up by the Japanese worked out the new constitution in the independence building. Sukarno was also on this committee, who even headed it and, on June 1, 1945, explained the Pancasila state philosophy from this building
Ujung Kulon National Park
The park is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is located in West Java and on Lambung on the Sunda Shelf. The park has a large number of volcanoes and the largest contiguous area of lowland rainforest on Java.
In addition to many endangered animal and plant species, the Java rhinoceros live here, and its population is extremely threatened.
Some of the threatened Java tigers still live in the national park. The rafflesia flower is also found here. The flower can reach a diameter of up to 1 m.
The volcanic island of Krakatau is located between Sumatra and Java, directly on Sunda Strait. The 815 m high volcano is always active and last erupted in 1883. Its eruption is considered to be the second strongest volcanic eruption of modern times and the effects could even be felt in Europe. Since then, the island has been changing steadily and a new volcano has appeared in the last century. Its name, Anak Krakatau, goes back to the original volcano and, when translated into German, describes it as the child of Krakatau. This volcano is also active and should not be underestimated.
Gunung Bromo is an active volcano almost 2,300 m high, which is located in the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park. It can be reached within an hour from Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia.
Together with Bali, the volcano is one of the most tourist destinations in the entire country. It belongs to the Tengger volcanic massif and has been in a new eruption phase since 2010. Tambora. The Tambora is about 390 km east of Java. The Tambora is a volcano with a current height of 2,850 m. It is located on the island of Sumbawa, which belongs to the Lesser Sunda Islands and is around km east of Java.
In 1815 there was a massive eruption of the volcano, the ashes of which had stretched as far as Europe and here in 1816 had led to the worst famine of the 19th century.
The year 1816 went down in history as the “year without the sun”. The last – but considerably smaller – outbreak occurred in 1967.
Diving Diving areas
are in Palau Seribu, Carita, Karimunjawa, Cimaja.
There are beautiful golf courses on the island
Sightseeing in Bali and Lombok
Bali and Lombok belong to the Lesser Sunda Islands, which are separated from the Indonesian main island of Java by the so-called Bali Strait. The Wallace Line, which forms the dividing line between the Asian and Australian flora and fauna, runs between the two islands of Bali and Lombok. Both islands are around 5,000 km² in size, of volcanic origin and are around 1,100 km apart. While the Hindu Bali is fully developed for tourism, the Muslim Lombok is still lagging behind its neighboring island. However, this makes it often more popular than Bali, especially with backpackers, as it is a little cheaper and more original, and is visibly different from its overcrowded neighboring island in nature. While Bali is tropical and fertile, Lombok is much drier, especially in summer – rice cultivation is hardly found here, but the more volcanic landscape and many small islands that surround the island of Lombok. Both islands, but especially Bali, are the main source of income in Indonesia, which, after industry, sees tourism as the future economic pillar of the country and is constantly promoting it.
Interesting cities and towns
In the south of Bali lies Denpasar, the capital of the island. Denpasar’s population almost doubled from around 380,000 to just under 630,000 between 2000 and 2010, thus illustrating the great onslaught of the island from outside. Many of the residents of Denpasar are not Balinese or even Indonesians. Denpasar has an international airport, many shopping opportunities, administrative headquarters and is the commercial and economic center of the island. Denpasar’s markets, the historic Puputan Square and the turtle island Serangan are particularly worth seeing.
Kuta is the name of two cities, one on Bali and one on Lombok. In addition to the capital Denpasar, Kuta is probably the best-known town on the Indonesian island of Bali. Kuta is mainly known as ‘Little Australia’, as the city is a meeting point for many tourists from all over the world, but mainly from the neighboring continent. It is located in the south of the island and is not far from Denpasar, from the airport it is about 15 minutes drive away. While a few years ago the tourists came to Kuta Bali mainly because of the long white sandy beach and to surf, the city is now the island’s fun center, which is surrounded by many shops, bars, clubs, restaurants, discos and even a huge shopping mall. If you are looking for a relaxed and young audience, you will definitely find something in Kuta. In 2002 there was no need for the terrorist attack in a discotheque, which killed 202 people. There is a memorial on the main Legian street.
The small fishing village of Kuta Lombok is located in the south of the island of Lombok and, unlike its sister town on Bali, has remained an original and small village that mainly attracts surfers and backpackers. Surrounded by untouched, beautiful nature you can find some guest houses and many original and inexpensive Indonesian restaurants, so-called warungs, in Kuta Lombok. The best way to explore the area is by moped, with which you can get to the many wide and white sandy beaches, which are surrounded by rocks, palm trees and nature of volcanic origin.
About 30 km from Denpasar is the small town of Ubud, the cultural center of Bali. Ubud has around 30,000 residents. Ubud’s colonial streets are astonishing, because painting and textile art can be found on every corner. Their charm and flair are enveloped in music, excellent food, culture and art. Special sights are the Monkey Forest, the Puri Saren Palace and the lush green rice terraces, which are located in the immediate vicinity of the city and represent typical Bali on every postcard. The region’s wine is also recommended.
The small village of Uluwatu in the extreme south of Bali is about 40 minutes from Kuta. Uluwatu is particularly popular with surfers, but a trip is worthwhile even if you don’t want to stand on the board. Uluwatu’s huge limestone cliffs allow a wonderful view of the surrounding nature and a visit to the Pura Luhur Uluwatu Temple, which is located right on the slope of its cliffs, should be an absolute must. The temple was built in the 11th century. It is said that he protects Bali from evil spirits.
Padang Bai is a small fishing and port town on the eastern side of the Balinese island. It is the starting point to the surrounding islands such as B. Lombok, Nusa Penida and the Gilis. Ferries and speedboats leave here every day. As almost everywhere on the island, several smaller pensions and restaurants have settled here. Padang Bai is also known for great snorkeling and diving spots, which are located in the immediate vicinity and can be explored by tour or individually. Recommended excursions are a visit to the Blue Lagoon, Black Beach and the heavenly White Sand Beach.
Bali is predominantly Hindu. About 30,000 Hindu shrines are scattered across the country, the most important of which are:
A 1000 year old rock temple. The temple complex is located in central Bali and is built around a spring. The temple complex is a tomb for early Balinese rulers.
Pura Goa Lawah
The temple in East Bali is over 1,000 years old and important for life after death. The temple is built in a cave that is home to thousands of fruit bats.
The temple complex from the 12th century is located in East Bali and is impressively built into a mountain with several terraces. The entrance area is flanked by elephant sculptures.
Pura Luhur Uluwatu
Pura Luhur Uluwatu in South Bali is Bali’s holiest and at the same time most impressive temple complex, which was built on a rocky promontory into the sea. It is believed that the original structure dates from the 11th century. Like the temple complex in Pura Tanah Lot, it also served for the mercy of the sea gods.
Pura Meduwe Karang
The temple complex in the north of Bali is known for its stone sculptures and reliefs. These are designed in the typical northern Balinese floral style.
Pura Tamban Ayun
Pura Tamban Ayun in Mengwi is a rectangular Hindu temple complex in an artificial lake. The temple complex represents the model of the Hindu world in the cosmic sea. The temple complex from 1740 was completely restored in 1937.
Pura Tanah Lot
A sea temple in southern Bali, dating from the 15th century and built on a ledge. Over the centuries this has developed into an island, caused by the strong sea surf. It is dedicated to the gods of the sea. However, access is only allowed to believers.
Besakih Temple Complex
It is located in East Bali and extends with 22 temples over an area of 3 km2. It lies at the foot of the Gunung Agung mountain, which the Balinese believe is the home of their ancestors. The temple complex was founded by Javanese in the 8th century. Much of the complex was destroyed in an earthquake in 1917. However, the temple complex was rebuilt. It is of great importance to the Hindus.
The Tirta Empul Temple is located in central Bali, approx. 15 km northeast of Ubud and not far from the royal tombs Gunung Kawi. Many Hindus come to Tirta Empul regularly to wash clean, as the temple’s waters are considered sacred. The temple was built in 962 AD.
Ulun Danu Batur
This temple complex is located in East Bali. Its incomparably beautiful location in Lake Batur makes it one of the most important temple complexes in Bali.
Special residential, political and commercial buildings
The villages are organized like an Indian mandala.
The Balinese village is grouped around a central temple. The ancestors, the founders of the village, are worshiped like gods.
The villages are oriented along a mountain-sea axis. Towards the inland, towards the mountains, is the temple of the ancestors (“pura puseh”), towards the sea the temple of the dead (“pura dalem”).
In the center of the village are the houses of the people of honor of the village. There is also the watchtower of the village, the market square, the temple of the village deity, a large pavilion for cockfights and other community celebrations.
The residential buildings are grouped orthogonally around this center.
The residential houses are rectangular, walled courtyards, which consist of several free-standing buildings. The individual household presents itself to the outside with an individual gate.
Hotel complexes Bali is known for its hotels beautifully integrated into the garden landscape.
Diving Diving areas
are in Snur, Kuta, Amed, Candidasa, Tanjung Benoa, Jemeluk, Tulamben, Lovina, Nusa Lembongan as well as Pemuteran and Uluwatu.
The Kuta Reef in South Bali is Bali’s surfing spot.
The dance in Bali has its roots in the Wayang Theater of Java, the traditional shadow play.
Dance in Balki is performed in the form of temple dance, masks and puppet shows, some of which have their origins in India.
There is less dancing in Lombok, which is more Islamic.
The Sasak dance is a traditional fight that is performed in dance form.
Like Bali and Lombok, the three Gili Islands belong to the Lesser Sunda Islands.
They are located between their two sister islands about 0.5 hours by boat from North Lombok and two hours from East Bali. The small sand islands Gili Trawangan, Gili Air and Gili Meno are each only one meter above sea level and can be easily circumvented on foot within a few hours, almost minutes.
The three so-called Gilis, especially the main island Gili Trawangan, have been more or less overrun by tourism in the last year. Many bars, hotels and restaurants have settled there, making them a popular destination, especially for divers and snorkeling, but there are still secluded beaches. Incidentally, no motor vehicles are permitted on the small paradise islands and horse-drawn carriages are used as the main means of transport.
The Gunugn Agung volcano has a height of 3,142 m
Lake Tamblingan is a crater lake
Gunung Rinjani National Park
with a beautiful crater lake. The volcano of the same name is 3,726 m high and is located on Lombok.
Air Panas hot springs from Banjar
in the north of Bali, the spring water is stored in three swimming pools. The water is considered sacred by the locals. There is a temple near the pools.
The 70,000 ha = 700 km2 national park is located in the northwest of the islands, a mountainous and wooded area. In the park itself there are hot springs and a temple complex in Banyuwedang.
The park also has a fantastic stretch of coastline. In addition to monkeys and exotic birds, leopards live in the area.
Cultivated landscape of the rice fields
The rice fields are laid out in terraces and provided with extensive irrigation systems, some of which in Bali go back to the 9th century AD. In this way, the water is directed from the higher mountains into the fields. Useful trees such as banana tree, coconut palm and bamboo are planted between the rice fields. There are numerous rats and therefore cobras in the rice fields. So be careful when entering!
The rice was kept in traditional wooden storehouses.
Sights on the Moluccas
Benteng Tolukku is a
Benteng Tolukku is a Portuguese fort from 1512
Tenteng Oranye is a h olländisches Fort from 1607 in Kota Ternate
The fort was built by the Portuguese in 1540.
Forts on Banda
Forts on Ternate
The fort was rebuilt by the Dutch in 1608 after it was abandoned by the Portuguese.
Fort Benteng Belgica has been restored and offers a fantastic view.
Sultan’s Palace in Kota Ternate, Keraton Sultan
The palace was built in 1976 and is now the museum and home of the current sultan.
Gunung Api Gamalama is a volcano with a height of 1,721 m that is still active. Tourists keep disappearing while exploring it!
On the Moluccas, the Spice Islands, you can experience how our everyday spices such as cloves and nutmeg are grown and processed.
Diving and snorkeling
On the Banda Islands and on the islands around Tobelo you can dive and snorkel very well.
Landmarks on Irian Jara-Papua
Treehouses of the Korowai tribe
The treehouses are built in the treetops of the rainforest at heights of 30-50 m above the ground. The minimum height is 10 m. The houses are climbed with ladders. They serve as protection from wild animals and the swamp that forms during heavy downpours. They are usually inhabited by several families.
The construction of the houses requires extreme care. First a suitable tree must be found, usually an extremely sturdy banana tree. The trunk is cut and scaffolding is put up for the floor of the hut. This consists of braided branches that are covered with palm bark.
The walls are constructed from poles of the sago palm. The roofs are covered with their leaves.
As soon as the houses are completed, the scaffolding will be dismantled. The tree houses can then only be climbed using long posts that are hooked into the steps.
Lorentz National Park
The national park is registered in the Unesco list of world natural heritage. With a size of 2.5 million hectares = 25,000 km2, it represents the largest protected area in Southeast Asia. At the same time, it is the only area that extends from snow peaks in the mountains to the tropical sea. The park contains important fossil sites as well as an extremely large amount of wet flat land. There are many creatures and plants of great diversity in the park.
The diving sites in Pulau Biak and Jayapura offer not only the maritime variety but also numerous wrecks from WWII.
Sights on Kalimantan (Borneo)
Sacred buildings and sacred institutions
The Sumatran-style mosque is made entirely of wood and dates from the 18th century.
Cultural and scientific institutions
This monument stands on the equator and has a number of measuring devices at its top.
Special residential, political and commercial buildings
The wooden longhouses were inhabited by several families. Sometimes almost the entire village community lived under one roof. Covered verandas, which served as a meeting point, are an important element. These usually extend over the entire length of the house.
You can find the houses on the Mahakam River.
In the village of Mancong there is a particularly beautiful and old longhouse from 1870.
The wooden house, built on stilts, has two floors. The facade is divided horizontally by two verandas.
- Tanjung Puting National ParkThe park is approximately 355 km ² and is known for its orangutan center, Camp Leaky. It consists of rainforest, mangrove forest and wetland.
- Kutai National Park
- Gunung Palnug National ParkThe park is located in West Kalimantan. There are beaches and tropical mountains in the park.
Excellent diving areas are in Pulau Derawan and Pulau Sangalaki.
Sights in Sulawesi
Rock paintings in Maros
In the cave settlements in Maros in South Sulawesi there are around 100 dwellings with rock paintings dating from 10,500 – 3,500 BC. Dated.
The fort built by the Dutch was used to monitor the important trading port of Makassar. The fort was built in the Dutch style in 1667 and is one of the best preserved buildings of Dutch architecture in Indonesia.
Cultural and scientific institutions
Museum The museum is housed in the former royal residence of Gowa and is now in the south of Makassar. In addition to the artifacts on display, the wooden Bugis-style palace is well worth a visit.
Taka Bone Rate National Park
The park is the largest coral atoll in Indonesia. It is known for its diverse marine fauna.
Diving and snorkeling
There are excellent opportunities for snorkeling and scuba diving on the Togean Islands, Pulau Bunaken, Bira, Tanjung Karang and Batuputih.
At the end of August 2018, Sulawesi was hit by an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale.
As a result of the earthquake, a tsunami occurred, which wreaked havoc, especially in the city of Palu and the surrounding area, and killed around 1,500 people.
Sights in Sumatra
Sacred buildings and sacred institutions
Mesjid Raya Baiturrahman
This mosque was built by the Dutch in Banda Aceh in 1879 after they destroyed the previous building.
Special residential, political and commercial buildings
- The Palace of Pangaruyung is a reconstructed Sultan’s Palace, which lies just outside the city Bugittinggi.
- Traditional villagesThe Mentawai Islands are approx. 200 km from Sumatra, the islands have retained their originality. Here you can experience traditional village life up close.Batak villages around Lake Toba with their traditional ship-shaped wooden buildings that reflect the cosmos in their structure.
The mythical monster Singa, which adorns the gable as a carved figure, protects the house.
The villages consist of an average of 10 such houses.
There are 100 year old wooden houses in Bawamataluo Village. The village is located on the island of Nias and has to be climbed over 450 stone steps.
- Tropical Rainforest Heritage of SumatraThe protected area of 2.5 million hectares = 25,000 km² includes three national parks:Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park.
In the park you can find Rafflesia Arnoldii, a parasitic plant whose flowers can reach a diameter of up to one meter.
The Sumatra orangutan is native here, along with a myriad of other endemic (= only occurring here) animals.
- The Lake Gunung Tujuh is the highest lake in Southeast Asia
- The lake Dunau Toba with an area of 1,700 km2 lies at an altitude of 900 m. In its center is the 530 km2 island of Samosir. On the shore of the lake are the picturesque Batak villages with their boat-shaped wooden houses.
- The warlike Batak tribe practiced cannibalism up into the 20th century
Find of the black rock
In 1998, near the small island of Belitung, east of Sumatra, divers discovered the wreck of an old ship at a depth of only 15 to 19 m. The ship dates back to the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618 to 907) and contained numerous ceramics and a valuable gold treasure. Since it was found near a black rock, the German diver and end-explorer named it with the Indonesian name “Batu Hitam” (= find from the black rock). After the find, there were considerable disputes over the ownership structure. The gold treasure is currently stored in a bank safe in Germany, while large parts of the ceramics are in Singapore. Numerous other wrecks are suspected in the archipelago.
Good diving areas are in Pulau Weh.
Attractions in Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda Islands)
Village of Bena
In the village of Bena you will find a wonderfully preserved ensemble of traditional Ngada houses.
Komodo National Park
The park is inscribed on the Unesco World Heritage List.
It is located on East Nusa in the Tenggara Province.
The volcanic islands are inhabited by around 5,700 fearsome looking lizards that behave quite aggressively. The “Komodo dragons” only live here and are of great interest to evolutionary researchers. The nature park is very rich in contrasts with its rugged cliffs and blue beaches.
Kelimutu crater lakes
The three crater lakes, which are in three different colors in the volcanic landscape, are one of the island’s main attractions.
Indonesia: UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Komodo Islands National Park (1991)
Komodo is an island in the Lesser Sunda Islands with an area of about 400 km². Much of the island is designated a national park. The Komodo dragon lives here, for example. In 1991, the Komodo Island National Park was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Ujung Kulon (Java) with Anak Krakatao volcano (1991)
Krakatao is located between Sumatra and Java. It’s a volcanic island. The volcano erupted several times over the past centuries. On August 27, 1883, it erupted so badly that the entire island was destroyed. A new island of volcanic origin, the Anak Krakatao, was built on the same spot. The same misfortune is said to have occurred a long time before in AD 535 . In 1991 the Ujung Kulon National Park (Java) with the Anak Krakatao volcano was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Buddhist temples of Borobudur (1991)
Borobudur is a large Buddhist temple complex on the island of Java. The pyramid is located northwest of Yogyakarta. The complex comprises nine floors – with a square floor plan, with each side being 123 m long. The life and work of the Buddha are described on the walls. There are 72 stupas on the terraces, the main stupa (Buddhist monument) was built around 750 to around 850. The center of power in Java was shifted eastwards in the 10th and 11th centuries. The plant thereupon gradually was forgotten and the ashes of the volcanoes buried the plant. It was only rediscovered in 1814. Borobudur was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1991.
Prambanan Hindu Temple (1991)
Prambanan is located east of Yogyakarta on the island of Java. Prambanan was built around the year 850. The temple was abandoned later and began to fall apart.
It was not until 1918 that the value of the complex was recognized again and the reconstruction of the ruins began. Numerous individual temples are arranged around the 47 m high main building, which stands in the middle. The complex has eight main shrines and about 250 temples. Three of the shrines are dedicated to three gods – the creator Brahma, the destroyer Shiva and the preserver Vishnu. The Prambanan Hindu Temple was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1991.
Sangiran paleontological site (1996)
Sangiran is an archaeological site on the island of Java. In 1934 fossils of the genus “Homo” were discovered. The Sangiran paleontological site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1996.
Lorentz National Park in New Guinea (1999)
The Lorentz National Park has a total area of 23,555 km². The park extends from areas close to the equator to the tropical sea. There are rainforests in the high and lowlands. Many fossils were found in this area, which provide information about the evolutionary history in New Guinea. Numerous mammals and birds are assured of survival in the national park. Numerous plants also grow here. In 1984 a tree kangaroo was discovered there, an affectionate animal adored by the Moni tribe, which was unknown until then. Eight independent peoples still live in the park and at the park. They have largely retained their social, economic and cultural institutions. In the northwest of the park is the highest mountain in Oceania, the Carstensz pyramid with a height of 5,030 m.
Tropical Rainforests of Sumatra (2004)
The protected area of 2.5 million hectares = 25,000 km² includes three national parks:
Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. Gunung
National Park is located in northern Sumatra near the city of Medan. Many animal species live in this tropical rainforest, and before humans spread to Sumatra, they found an area that protects them from extinction. Sumatran orangutans, Sumatran tigers and rhinos and many other threatened animal species still live in the rainforest. In the national park you can find Rafflesia Arnoldii, a parasitic plant whose flowers can reach a diameter of up to one meter. Be near Medan since 1973
Orangutans released into the wild.
Lake Gunung Tujuh is the highest lake in Southeast Asia. The lake Dunau Toba with an area of 1,700 km² lies at an altitude of 900 m. In its center is the approximately 530 km² island of Samosir. The picturesque Batak villages with their boat-shaped wooden houses are grouped on the shores of the lake. The warlike Batak tribe practiced cannibalism until the 20th century.
The Barisan Mountains are a mountain range on the west side of Sumatra with a length of 1,700 km. Many of the mountains are volcanoes. The Bukit Barisan National Park is located on the southern part of the mountain range.
The highest mountain is the Kerinci volcano with a height of 3,800 m surrounded by dense jungle. The tropical rainforests of Sumatra were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2004.
The Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy (2012)
Bali is located in the Indian Ocean and has been part of Indonesia since 1949. The island is located in the west of the Lesser Sunda Islands – in the Indian Ocean between Java and Lombok.
The Subakgemeinschaft is a democratic union of the Balinese people. Her philosophy, the Tri Hita Karana, would like to
secure harmony between God, humans as well as humans with one another and nature. Since the people built an irrigation system of tunnels and canals to irrigate the terraced rice fields, they were forced to keep peace with one another. This religious philosophy arose from this common ground. “Subak” means “irrigation community”. The sub-association was first mentioned in writing in 1022 – but was probably founded much earlier.
Temples were built near the water sources in order to please the gods, among other things so that they would not let the water run dry. In later times the Subaks also opened up distant rivers for their irrigation system and built further water tunnels and canals. They built temples at the springs. The most beautiful temple is the royal Pura Taman Ayun temple. It was built in the 18th century and is bordered or surrounded by moats.
The area of the protected Subak system is approximately 200 km² and includes five terraces and a variety of temples.
The Subak system was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2012.
Mining legacy of the Ombilin colliery (2019)
The mining legacy of the Ombilin colliery in the town of Sawahlunto, which now has around 50,000 residents, is an industrial complex for the mining, processing, transport and export of coal in the west of the island of Sumatra.
The coal deposit was developed and exploited by Dutch colonial powers between the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The site includes the mine, the colliery town, the coal store at the port of Teluk Bayur, formerly known as Emmahaven, and the associated rail network that connected the mines to the coast.
The workers came from the local population as well as from slave labor from the regions controlled by the Netherlands. The mining heritage of the Ombilin colliery was entered on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2019.