Israel: events, national customs, climate
Hanukkah begins on Kislev 25th (November/December) and lasts eight days. The holiday is also known as the “temple consecration festival” or “festival of lights” and is one of the joyful days of remembrance, but not one of the biblically prescribed holidays. It commemorates the successful Maccabees uprising against Syrian rule and that of 165 BC. Chr. The desecrated temple in Jerusalem was rededicated. In the sanctuary, desecrated by the Syrians, only an intact oil jar was found, the contents of which would normally only have been enough for one day as fuel for the seven-armed temple chandelier (menorah). But miraculously, with this small amount of oil, the candlestick burned for eight days, so that new oil could be made in the meantime.
Purim is the “Los Feast”, which takes place on Adar 14 (February/March according to the Gregorian calendar) and commemorates the salvation of the Jews from ancient Persia. The background of the holiday is as follows: The minister Haman induced the Persian king to issue the order to kill all Jews in the Persian Empire. The king’s wife, Esther, succeeded in bringing down the powerful minister and obtained permission for the Jews to defend themselves against those who tried to carry out this order. In this way the Jews succeeded in conquering their adversaries. Haman set the date for the extermination of the Jews by lot, hence the name “Lotfest”. The customs of this holiday are the costumes of children and carnival pleasures.
The “New Year Festival”, which begins on 1st and 2nd Tishri (September/ October) and lasts ten days of penance, is a reminder of the covenant that was made between God and the people of Israel. The day should be used to inner yourself, to turn away from evil and to act well. Man should give an account of his actions and become aware of his moral duties anew. His effort to remember the covenant with God, in turn, will cause God to recall and fulfill the promises of the contract by giving man a happy life. The traditional symbol of the apple with honey represents the wish that the new year will be sweet and good.
Shavuot is also known as the “Festival of Weeks” and takes place on the 6th and 7th Sivan (May/June). The proclamation of the ten commandments on Mount Sinai is commemorated on these days. At the same time, the day is celebrated as a harvest festival, the “festival of the first fruits”. On this occasion, the mosques are decorated with fresh flowers and fruits.
The Shabbat is basically the highest holiday. It is a weekly rest day on Saturday, on which a general work ban applies. This means that no work may be done during the Shabbat, which is why Jewish shops, institutions, offices and public leisure facilities are largely closed. This holiday is comparable to Sunday in a Christian-European weekly rhythm.
The closing days of the Sukkot festival have their own names and are celebrated with special rituals. The second day of the final feast of Sukkot is called Simchat and translated means “joy of the Torah”. On this day the annual cycle of the Torah sections ends and reading of the Torah begins again from the beginning.
Also known as the “Feast of Tabernacles”, Sukkot is a celebration of thanks for bringing in a good harvest, especially the fruit and wine harvest. It reminds of the 40-year desert wandering of the Israelites after their exodus from Egypt and of their life in unstable (foliage) huts during this time. The festival is symbolized with a festive bouquet made of branches of palm trees, myrtle, willow and etrog, which is waved back and forth during the service as a sign of joy. During these holidays the commandment applies to live in a sukkah (hut) that does not have a solid roof, but is only covered with twigs, straw and brushwood. The festival lasts seven or nine days and begins on the 15th of Tishri (September/October).
The “Day of Atonement” is the climax of the ten days of penance after the New Year festival Rosh Hashana and is the most important holiday of the Jewish year. The divine judgment on man that was passed on the New Year festival is sealed and becomes valid. The day should serve to atone for man and to receive divine forgiveness for his misdeeds. It is the day of repentance, repentance and conversion. Yom Kippur is a strict fast day. No food may be consumed from the beginning of the festival in the evening until the end of the evening on the next day. In addition to eating and drinking, personal hygiene is also prohibited, with the exception of wetting hands and eyes with water. Those who pray in the synagogue wear white clothing to symbolize purity and atonement.
Further holidays or festive days
|27th of the month of Nissan||Jerusalem Day: Liberation of Jerusalem|
|15th of the month Schwat||Tubischwat: New year for trees and plants|
|5th of the month Iaw||Independence day|
In addition, the following events take place regularly in Israel:
|May||Holocaust Remembrance Day at the Yad Vashem Memorial in Jerusalem|
|May June||Israel Festival in Jerusalem|
|June||Jerusalem Pride and Tel Aviv Pride (gay and lesbian festival) in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv respectively|
|July||Jerusalem Film Festival|
|August||Red Sea Jazz Festival in Eilat|
|October||Israel Fringe Theater Festival (alternative theater festival) in Acre|
|Jerusalem March in Jerusalem|
Source: Countryaah – Israel Holidays
The Maccabia Stadium in Jerusalem hosts the “Jewish Olympic Games”, the Maccabiads, every four years in honor of the Maccabeans.
Held every year.
Swimming in Galilee:
The aim is to cross the Sea of Galilee.
Various marathons in Raanana, Tel Aviv and Tiberia.
The climate in northern Israel is temperate with cool and relatively rainy winters. The south is hot and dry. The Mediterranean coast and the Jordan Valley have a subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and mild, rainy winters.
The ideas of what is meant by a particularly favorable travel climate depend on a number of factors. For example, cultural travelers see the climate very differently than people who want to spend a pure beach holiday, for example. The state of health or age can also play an important role. Therefore, our travel time recommendations are divided into the following two categories:
people who tend to be sun-hungry For people who like to enjoy a lot of sun and for whom higher temperatures do not cause problems, the following seasons are particularly suitable for a stay in the country: spring, summer and autumn.
For people who prefer a temperate climate
People who prefer a moderate climate and lower temperatures should better use the following seasons to stay in Israel: winter, spring and autumn.
The following table shows a range of climate data for the country. It should be noted, however, that the climatic conditions in different regions of the country can differ considerably from one another and thus also from the values shown. In addition, such monthly temperature averages say little about the possible current minimum or maximum temperatures. It is not uncommon for average temperatures of around 30 °C to reach maximum values of 40 °C or even more on a number of days. The table therefore only provides a general overview of the climatic conditions in the country.
|Month||Average number of rainy days||Mean maximum temperatures in (°C)||Mean minimum temperatures in (°C)|
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Presents the way that IL stands for the nation of Israel as a two-letter acronym.
Israel’s third largest city is also known as the City of Labor. The city on the Mediterranean Sea, which winds its way up a large slope, attracts in particular with the Hanging Gardens of the Baha’i, a really wonderful garden, in the optical center of which the shrine of Bab rises.
If there is one place in the world that can claim to have shaped or changed the world and to be its center, then it is Jerusalem, the capital of the young and yet so old state of Israel: Here stood once the two temples of Judaism, here the martyrdom of Christ and his resurrection took place and here it was from where Mohammed began his wondrous night journey on the Buraq, the winged mythical creature into heaven. This is where the scenes of the Old and New Testaments lie. This city is the main sanctuary of Christians, Jews and Muslims (after Mecca and Medina). More impressions and information about the capital of Israel can be found here at goruma here >>>
Tel Aviv is about 60 km from Jerusalem and can be easily reached by bus, train or in a shared taxi (sherut). Tel Aviv is the self-confident commercial and cultural center that embodies the modern history of the Jewish state and forms the opposite of Jerusalem. Established from 1909, this partly very Mediterranean-looking city offers everything – from museums, cafés, bars and shops to beautiful beaches. To the south is the old picturesque port of Jaffa, one of the oldest in the world.
Eilat (or Elat), the party and sun city on the southern tip of Israel, is certainly not a special attraction. Young Israelis come to celebrate because the Red Sea is warm and the music from the beach bars is loud. The beach promenade and, of course, the view of the four countries are worth seeing, as in clear weather you can see Israel as well as Jordan, the mountains of Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Eilat is also Israel’s only port city on the Red Sea, home to around 49,000 people.
Askalon or Ashqelon
North of Ghaza City on the Mediterranean Sea and in the western part of the Negev desert is the old city of Askalon. It has around 110,000 residents. It is historically significant due to the campaigns of Ramses II the Great (reign from 1290 BC to 1224) against the Hittites (battle of Kadesh in 1285 BC).
The fourth largest city in Israel is Beersheba. It is the “capital of the Negev desert”. About 200,000 people live there.
The city in the north of the country in Galilee has around 200,000 residents, of which around 70% are Muslims. Nazareth has worldwide significance as the hometown of Jesus (Jesus of Nazareth). According to the Gospels, Mary and Joseph are said to have come from there, and it is there that the Archangel Gabriel is said to have announced the birth of the future Savior to Mary.
Old City of Jerusalem
There is no shortage of interesting, sometimes strange neighborhoods in Jerusalem. In the old town, which embodies the multireligiousness carved in stone, next to the Christian, Jewish and Muslim are also the Armenian quarter, which refers to the presence of Armenian Christians, whose ancestors settled in Jerusalem as early as the 3rd century. Each quarter of Jerusalem’s old town, which has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981, has its own charm:
These two districts are the resting places of the old town and contain churches, patriarchates and hospices of all Christian denominations. In addition to the citadel and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer and the Museum of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate are located in these quarters.
It is located right next to the Muslim Quarter and is a fascinating hodgepodge of over 2000 years of Jewish history in Jerusalem; a lively place that also invites you to linger and wafts up with charming little squares. Sights: Western Wall, Cardo, Hurva Square etc.
The Muslim quarter is the most densely populated, but also the poorest quarter of Jerusalem. At the same time, it offers many of the city’s most important sights (Via Dolorosa, Church of St. Anne, Haram esh-Sharif, etc.) and countless markets (called Souq in Arabic).
Mea Shearim in Jerusalem
Probably the strangest quarter is Mea Shearim, in which you feel transported back to the 18th century after entering: It is the quarter of the ultra-Orthodox Jews and only minimally connected to the outside world. Clothing, behavior and habits are strictly conservative: visitors should be careful to respect this.
Temple district in Jerusalem
Most important is the temple district (Arabic Haram esh-Sharif or Hebrew Har haBeit). Compared to 2003, you can basically re-enter it, but not the mosques and only at certain times (winter: 7.30-10.30 and 12.30-13.00/summer 8-11.30 and 1.30-3.00/Fri. Closed) the only access to the temple precinct is the Mugrabi Gate, although fourteen other gates lead to the plateau on which the Jewish temples once stood. Jews are not allowed to enter the temple precinct as the Temple Mount is under Islamic administration according to Israeli law. The landmark of this district (as well as the whole city) is the Dome of the Rock in the center of the square. Furthermore, at its end in the direction of the Mount of Olives is the Golden Gate, which has been walled up for over 1000 years. A tradition
White City in Tel Aviv
In July 2003 the “White City” of Tel Aviv was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco. The White City is an entire district of Tel Aviv, in which there are around 4,000 buildings in the Bauhaus or modern style. The houses were built between 1930 and 1949 – the year the State of Israel was founded. The city of Tel Aviv as the first modern Hebrew city was founded in 1909. The “White City” is between Allenby Street in the south, Begin Road and Ibn Gvirol Street in the east, the Yarkon River in the north and the Mediterranean Sea in the west. The “White City” owes its creation to the Scottish town planner Sir Patrick Geddes, who was commissioned in 1925 to
Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem
It is probably the most important path in Jerusalem and attracts pilgrims every day, especially on Good Friday, the day of the crucifixion of Jusus: Although the identification of this path is more religious than historical, for Christians it represents the “path of pain” of Christ is lined with shops and stalls to the left and right and winds its way through the middle of the Muslim quarter. Especially on Fridays you shouldn’t miss to join the Franciscan procession, which starts in front of the Islamic school Medrese el-Omarijja (1st station) at St. Stephen’s Gate at 3 p.m. and leads along the individual stations of Christ to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, where the last 5 of the total of 14 stations are located.
Supreme Court Building in Jerusalem
This Supreme Court building was inaugurated in 1992 and was designed by the architects Ada and Ram Karmi. The court is near the Knesset. Knesset, Jerusalem The Knesset (Eng. “Assembly”) in Rothschild Street is the seat of the Israeli parliament, contains classical elements and is reminiscent of the Parthenon in Athens as well as various reconstructions of the temple. Opposite the entrance is a huge menorah symbolizing the state of Israel. The reception area was designed by the Russian-Jewish artist Marc Chagall with mosaics and a three-part tapestry depicting the creation of the world, Exodus and the city of Jerusalem.
Mishkan HaNasi in Jerusalem
The official residence of the Israeli President is located on HaNasi Boulevard in Jerusalem.
New City Hall, Jerusalem
The City Hall, completed in 1993, is located directly in front of the city walls, where West and East Jerusalem border each other and is actually more of a complex of ten renovated historical and two modern buildings. One of the renovated buildings is the old town hall, which still has bullet holes from the wars of 1948 and 1967. Those looking for City Hall will find it a five-minute walk from Damascus Gate on Jaffa Street.
Truman Peace Center in Jerusalem
It was named after Harry S. Truman (1884-1972), President of the USA from 1945 to 1952. He played a crucial role in establishing the State of Israel in 1948. The Peace Center is part of the Hebrew University.
Notre Dame in Jerusalem
This is the impressive pilgrim house of the Roman Catholic Church in Jerusalem.
Azrieli Center in Tel Aviv
This complex consists of three skyscrapers and a large shopping center (see above under “Markets and Shopping Centers ”). It was named after David Azrieli, the designer and owner of the shopping center. The individual towers are:
At 187 meters, the tallest tower in the ensemble is also the tallest building in Tel Aviv and the second tallest in Israel. It was built between 1996 and 1999. On the top floor of the 49-story building there is a viewing deck and a luxury restaurant.
The construction of this 154 meter high tower was stopped in 1998 due to differences of opinion in the urban planning. At present (2007) the 42-storey tower is still not completed, although construction has continued since 2006. It is expected to be finished in 2008.
This structure, which was built between 1996 and 1999, has 46 floors and a height of 169 meters.
Hezekiah Tunnel in Jerusalem
The 533 meter long tunnel in the rock below the Ophel Mountain connects the Gihon spring with the basin of Siloam and was built in the 8th century BC. Built by King Hezekiah during the siege of the city by the Assyrians.
Maccabiastadion in Jerusalem
The “Jewish Olympic Games”, the Maccabiade, take place here every 4 years in honor of the Maccabeans.
Montefiore windmill in Jerusalem
This windmill is the symbol of the Jemin Moshe district of Jerusalem, the first Jewish district outside the old town. This district was founded in 1860 by Sir Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), a British entrepreneur and Jewish philanthropist, mainly to settle Jews who were persecuted in Russia.
Lev HaYir Tower in Tel Aviv
The tallest tower in the Tel Aviv district, Kerem HaTemanim, was built in 2004. The tower houses a public library, offices and several shops.
Teddy Stadium in Jerusalem
This sports stadium is a large stadium in the southwest of Jerusalem, near the Biblical Zoo. It was named after the former long-time mayor of Jerusalem, Teddy Kollek (born 1911 in Vienna).
Siloam pond in Jerusalem
You can still see the stone steps that led to the entrance of the tunnel, which was built around 700 BC. was built by King Hezekiah (725-696 BC) to secure the water supply to Jerusalem.
Tel Aviv Exhibition Center in Tel Aviv
In the north of Tel Aviv is the Tel Aviv Exhibition Center, established in 1932, which welcomes over a million visitors every year. Between 45 and 60 major events take place there. The building is located on Rokah Boulevard and impresses with 10 different pavilions, the largest of which has an area of 21.3 m² and is often used for concerts. There is space for around 6,000 spectators.
Dome of the Rock (Arabic: Qubba al-sachra), Jerusalem
The Dome of the Rock is the oldest surviving building in Islam and was built in 688-91 on the one hand as a shrine for the rock where Abraham was supposed to sacrifice his son Isaac of the Old Testament, and on the other as a memorial on Muhammad’s Ascension, which is said to have taken place here. It is not considered a mosque. The Dome of the Rock is a wonderful example of the Umayyad style of Islamic art.
Wailing Wall (Hebrew Hakotel Hamaaravi), Jerusalem
The Wailing Wall (western wall) is the holiest place in Judaism and the last remnant of the retaining walls of the Second Temple, which goes back to Herod the Great and was destroyed by the Romans in 70. Since the day of the destruction, Jews have gathered to pray at these ruins, to celebrate or to stick strips of paper (kvitelchen) with complaints and wishes in the cracks between the stones. Since the Christians saw the prayers of the Jews as lamentations, they called this wall “Wailing Wall” since the Middle Ages.
Mary Magdalene Church, Jerusalem
Located outside the city walls, this beautiful Russian Orthodox church was built in 1885 by Tsar Alexander III. founded in memory of his mother. Domes and other architectural features were built in the Muscovite style of the 16th and 17th centuries. The body of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, who was murdered during the October Revolution in 1920, was buried in the church.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem
The “furthest mosque”, unfortunately not accessible to all non-Muslims, is located on the Temple Mount and is the third most important mosque in Islam after the Kaaba in Mecca and the mosque of the Prophet Mohammed in Medina. On Fridays, devout Muslims come there en masse for midday prayer. It was created around 30 years after the Dome of the Rock was built, when Abd Al-Walid I (705-715) placed the typical mosque dome on the Christian basilica of St. Mary as a sign of prostration in 711. Thus the sacred emerged upon the sacred – a common practice in the game of religions.
Garden of Gethsemane, at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem
According to the biblical tradition, Jesus prayed here in great fear shortly before his capture and pleaded: “Lord take this bitter cup from me” (Mark 14.35 and Luke 22.41). At this point stands the Church of the Franciscans, the “Church of All Nations”. It was designed by Antonio Barluzzi and built between 1919 and 1924.
Anna Church, Jerusalem
This crusader church was built between 1131 and 1138 in the Romanesque style and replaced a former Byzantine church. It stands in the place where Mary’s parents are said to have lived. In the two cisterns not far from the church there are ruins of a Roman temple. The pool of Bethesda, where Jesus is said to have healed a lame man, is said to have been located here. An entrance fee has to be paid in the Anna Church.
Armenian Orthodox Monastery, Jerusalem
The complex on Mount Zion includes the Armenian Patriarchate, the Jacob’s Cathedral (11th to 12th centuries) and the Gulbenkian library with over 50,000 volumes..
Great Synagogue (Heichal Schlomo), Jerusalem
It was inaugurated in 1982 and is the official seat of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate and thus the highest religious center in the country.
Catholic domed basilica, Nazareth It was only consecrated as a pilgrimage church in 1969 and bears the inscription: “Hic Verbum caro factum est” (Here the word became flesh).
This neo-Romanesque church was built for the German Kaiser Wilhelm II on older church ruins and completed in 1898. The beautiful cloister in the adjoining Lutheran Hospice is particularly worth seeing, as is the bell tower (177 steps). Concerts take place in the picturesque church courtyard on Saturdays. A visit to the bell tower on Fridays is particularly recommended because it offers a wonderful view of the temple area, where countless Muslims hold their Friday prayers.
Baha’i World Center in Haifa
The main attraction of Haifa is the Baha’i World Center on Mount Carmel, which is composed of various holy Baha’i sites. In addition to the characteristic shrine of Bab, the shrines with the remains of Baha’u’llah and Abdu’l Baha can still be seen. Many sanctuaries rise from the magnificent Hanging Gardens, which are open to Baha’i pilgrims and visitors.
Church of the Multiplication This Byzantine-style Roman Catholic church is located in the village of Tabgha, which is on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee in northeastern Israel. The church was built between 1980 and 1982 by the Köner architects Anton Goergen and Fritz Baumann on the foundation walls of a previous building.
According to the Christian faith (Gospel of Matthew 14: 13-2 or Gospel of John 6: 1-15), Jesus here fed 5,000 people with the help of a few loaves of bread and a few fish.
On June 18, 2015, Jewish fanatics set the cloister on fire.
Dormition Abbey in Jerusalem
This neo-Romanesque church sits enthroned on Mount Zion with its high bell tower and its dome lined with four corner towers. She stands where Mary is said to have lived and found her eternal sleep after Jesus’ crucifixion until her death. The church dates back to the 4th century and has been rebuilt several times. During the Middle East Wars in 1948 and 1967, the church was used by Israeli soldiers as a strategic outpost. The mosaic floor with signs of the zodiac and the names of the saints and prophets as well as the wood-ivory sculpture of the sleeping Mary in the crypt are particularly worth seeing.
Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
From a Christian perspective, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is the holiest site in Jerusalem and in the world. This multi-Christian church has over 30 chapels spread over several floors, which are shared by Catholics, Greek Orthodox, Armenians, Ethiopians, Syrians and Copts. The Via Dolorosa ends here. Here lies the tomb of Christ and Golgotha, the place where he was crucified. It is possible for anyone to get locked into the church overnight and enjoy the fantastic atmosphere of faith and worship
Jerusalem city wall
It was built in its present form under the reign of the ruler of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman (also: Süleyman) the Magnificent (1496-1566) around 1517. Its eight entrance gates include:
This largest gate of the old city wall of Jerusalem, one of a total of eight, was built in its present form under the reign of the ruler of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman (also: Süleyman), the Magnificent (1496-1566), around 1517. It was named after Damascus, the capital of Syria, as the road that used to connect Jerusalem with Damascus left the old city here.
– Jaffa Gate
One of the eight entrance gates to the old city of Jerusalem. It was built in its current form under the reign of the ruler of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman (also: Süleyman), the Magnificent (1496-1566), around 1517. The name comes from the city of Jaffa, as the road that used to connect Jerusalem with Jaffa left the old city here. The formerly independent city of Jaffa has been part of Tel Aviv since 1950.
Gate) This gate, one of a total of eight, of the old city wall of Jerusalem was built in its present form under the reign of the ruler of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman (also: Süleyman), the Magnificent (1496-1566), around 1517.
Citadel of Jerusalem
This is a large fortress as part of the old city wall near the Jaffa Gate. It was also built under Suleiman the Magnificent, on the spot where Herod I, the Great, (73 BC-4 BC) in 23 BC. Should have built his palace. The imposing bastion is located directly behind the city walls and today houses the David Tower Museum on the history of Jerusalem. The complex dates back to the 14th century and was expanded by Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent in 1532. This is where Jesus’ condemnation and trial are said to have taken place, which excavations seem to confirm that have unearthed remains from the 2nd century.
Archaeological dig sites in Jerusalem
Near the west and south walls of the Temple Mount, graves from the time of the First Temple, Herodian streets and shops, Roman bathhouses, Byzantine mosaics and crusader structures have been uncovered since 1969.
Bezalel Art School in Jerusalem
This art school was named after Bezalel, the artist called by God according to the Bible (2nd Book of Moses), who made the Ark of the Covenant in the time of Moses and under his leadership.
Biblical Zoo in Jerusalem
This very unusual zoo aims to present all animals mentioned in the Bible. The zoo is located on a large site in the southwest of the city.
Golden Gate in Jerusalem, 5th century.
The Jews expect the return of the Messiah through this gate, which is why it was walled up by the Muslims a few centuries ago.
Kennedy Memorial in Jerusalem
It was erected in honor of John F. Kennedy, the American President who was assassinated in 1963. The memorial is shaped like a large tree stump, each “rib” of which is supposed to represent a state in the USA.
Masada, located at the southwestern end of the Dead Sea, is regarded by today’s Israelis and Jews worldwide as a symbol of an unconditional desire for freedom and sacrifice. The fortress of Massada was mainly built by Herod I the Great (73 BC to 4 BC) in the years 40 BC. until 30 BC built. The fortress was around 400m high towards the Dead Sea and 100m towards the west. It was considered to be almost impregnable. After the temple was destroyed in 70 AD. in Jerusalem around 950 defenders (Zealots) withdrew here. The Roman general Flavius Silva besieged the fortress from 70 to 73 – although today it is more likely that a siege lasting several months is assumed. When the fortress fell, almost all defenders chose to commit suicide in order to avoid imprisonment.
Rockefeller Museum for Archeology, Jerusalem
This museum, whose name refers to the financial support of John D. Rockefeller, contains sculptures from the Crusader era and Greek and Roman objects from Judean desert caves as well as some of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Qumran).
Shrine of the Book, Jerusalem
This museum was built in 1965 as part of the Israel Museum and was designed by architects Frederick Kiesler and Armand Bartos. This building is famous for the Qumran scrolls exhibited there, the “Dead Sea Scrolls”. These scrolls found at the Dead Sea are considered the most important documents of Jewish religious history. One of the most famous handwritten Bibles, the “Aleppo Codex”, is also in this museum.
Qumran, By the Dead Sea
A good hour’s drive from Jerusalem, near the Dead Sea is Qumran, the site of the 2,000-year-old scrolls that are now on display in the Israel and Rockefeller Museum. The Qumran Caves are open daily from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (winter until 4:00 p.m.) and can be easily reached by bus from Jerusalem. Another important collection of the scrolls is in the “Shrine of the Book” museum in Jerusalem.
Roman ruins of Caesarea
under Herod in the 1st century BC. built
Theodor Herzl’s grave in Jerusalem
The Austrian writer, journalist and politician Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) is one of the great visionaries of Zionism. His book “Der Judenstaat” from 1896 is regarded as an essential theoretical basis for the later establishment (1948) of the State of Israel.
Royal tombs in Jerusalem
The family tomb of Helena of Mesopotamia from the 1st century AD is located here. and not, as previously assumed, the tomb of the Judean kings.
Mausoleum of Absalom in Jerusalem
Absalon was the brother of King Solomon (also: Solomon). Solomon, the son and successor of King David, ruled Israel from 965 to 926 BC. Absalon was killed during an uprising he instigated against his own father David. The mausoleum is located in the Kidron Valley, which lies between Jerusalem’s Old City and the Mount of Olives.
graves in Jerusalem The members of the Sanhedrin (Greek synhedrion = council), the highest political and legal authority of ancient Israel, were buried in these graves. This council was first established in the 3rd century BC. documented mention The grave complex consists of 71 graves that were carved into the rock.
Yad Vashem Memorial in Jerusalem
In addition to the memorial to commemorate the murder of 6 million Jews in Europe during the Holocaust (Shoah), the memorial includes an archive, a research center and a museum dedicated to this complex. The incredible and deeply impressive place of remembrance spreads out on the Herzlberg and should be entered with calm and prudence. Yad Vashem means “monument and name” in its German translation. This designation goes back to the prophet Isaiah 56: 5, who wrote: “I will erect a monument to you all in my house and within my walls, I will give you a name, who is worth more than sons and daughters: I give them an eternal name that will never be erased. ”
The memorial is structured as follows:
- MuseumThe museum documents the history of the persecution of the Jews in chronological order.
- Monuments The followingshould be mentioned in particular:
- Avenue of the Righteous Among the NationsIt is lined with trees that have been planted for the “righteous”. The Righteous Among the Nations refers to non-Jewish persons and organizations who opposed the Nazi regime in order to save Jews. A well-known example of this is certainly the industrialist Oskar Schindler
- Hall of Remembrance with the memorial flame for all victims
- Memorial for the childrenIt is dedicated to the memory of the approximately 1.5 million murdered children.
- Hall of NamesEvery known victim is remembered with their own name tag. Art Museum
It houses a collection of drawings and pictures of the inmates of concentration camps
- LibraryWith around 87,000 works, it has the largest collection of books on the extermination of the Jews
- ArchiveThe archive comprises over 58 million pages of documentation and around 100,000 images.
Tel Aviv University
It is the largest university in Israel and is located in a northern district of Tel Aviv called Ramat-Aviv. It was founded in 1956 from three individual units. Then in 1963 it gained autonomy.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This university was founded in 1918, long before the state of Israel was founded.
The Jordan is Israel’s most important river and also a river with many religious references. Its source rivers are the Hasbani in Lebanon, the Dan in northern Israel and the Banyas (Hermon River) in the northern Golan Heights, which unite to form the Jordan at Sede Nehemija. Its tributaries are the Jarmuk and Jabbok. The northern part of the river flows through the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.
The southern part of the river forms the border with Jordan – with the exception of the course from the Sea of Galilee to Bet She’an. In the northern area it flows along the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights claimed by Syria.
The Jordan flows through the Sea of Galilee and flows into the Dead Sea after around 251 km.
The ford at Qars al Yahud with the local former monastery is particularly worth mentioning. This is where Jesus is said to have been baptized. This region used to be a restricted area and was mined – but is now again accessible to visitors and pilgrims.
Israel borders with a little more than 10 km long border in the north on the Gulf of Akabar – a “branch” of the Red Sea. The diving paradise is home to countless coral reefs and an amazing wealth of species of exotic fish and other marine animals. The Red Sea coast is under nature protection, so it is strictly forbidden to take souvenirs with you, such as broken corals.
Approx. 130 km from Jerusalem is the Sea of Galilee, the lake (21 km long and 9 km wide) over which, according to tradition, Jesus walked. It is probably the most important freshwater reservoir in Israel, is about 212 meters below sea level and the Jordan flows through it. The beautiful area around the lake with its historical and religious sites (e.g. Church of the Multiplication in Tabkha) as well as various vacation options is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Israel today. However, the lake’s water level has fallen considerably in recent decades, as large amounts of the water from the Jordan that feeds it are withdrawn for irrigation purposes. Worth mentioning is the kibbutz “Ein Gev”, founded in 1937 and with a population of around 250, located on the eastern shore of the lake.
The Dead Sea is bordered by Israel and Jordan. In 1900 the area of the lake was 950 km², today it is 600 km². In contrast, the salt content of the water rose from approx. 26% to 33%. The lake gets its water from the Jordan and several other smaller tributaries. The lake does not have a runoff, it only loses its water through evaporation. This has led to the high salt content, which makes no higher life possible in the lake. Hence its name comes from. The water is said to be beneficial for the relief of certain skin diseases such as psoriasis. On the Israeli side, at the lake or in its vicinity, you will find the place where the Qumran Scrolls were found, the city of Jericho (approx. 10 km from the north bank), the Masada rock fortress and the En Gedi oasis.here >>
The oasis on the west bank of the Dead Sea is one of the most important archaeological sites in the Judean Desert. This very water-rich area is home to lots of game, leopards and countless species of birds.
Yarqon Park in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv’s largest public park is 3.8 km² in size and is one of the most famous green spaces in Israel. Every week thousands of visitors flock to this park along Rokah Boulevard and enjoy the many sports facilities, botanical gardens, the aviary, the water park and the many artificial lakes. The park got its name from the Yarqon River, which flows through it and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the western end of the park.
Old Port (Yafo) in Tel Aviv
The old port is located on the northern Mediterranean coast of Tel Aviv at the mouth of the Yarkon River. The port, which is no longer used today, is one of the liveliest districts of Tel Aviv and is littered with lively facilities that not only pass the time of day, but also make the nightlife turbulent. The old port was built between 1936 and 1938 and soon functioned as an important import and export port for central Israel. The first ship with immigrants under the Israeli flag landed here in 1948. After the year 1965 and the opening of the Ashdod Port, 40 kilometers south of Tel Aviv, the old port was closed and now serves as a place of relaxation for young and old. The actual focus of the port extends to the relatively small area south of the bridge,
At the Dead Sea under Mount Sodom, with a length of around 10 km, the Malcham Cave is the longest known salt cave in the world. It has overtaken the 6.5 km long Namakdan Cave on the Iranian island of Keschm. Such salt caves are rare and only arise in very dry regions in which layers of salt are pushed to the surface of the earth, for example by movements in the earth’s crust. Normally the salt pushed up is washed off by the rain. At the Dead Sea it only rains very rarely – and when it does, it rains very hard. The resulting water masses dissolved the deeper lying salt very quickly, which then resulted in this cave.
Israel: UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Old City of Akko (2001)
The city was formerly called Ptolemais and is an old city in Galilee in the north of the country – the old town of Akko is located on a headland in the Bay of Haifa.
A fortress surrounds the old town. Akko was already in the 14th century BC. Mentioned. Acre is also written about in the Old Testament.
In 332 BC The city was conquered by Alexander the Great.
The Romans then occupied Acre in 64 BC. And in 638 Akko became Islamic.
Acre was besieged in the 12th century and Arab rule ended in the time of King Baldwin I.
Francis of Assisi built a monastery for the Franciscan order in Akko in 1219. The city was later devastated by wars, but rebuilt in the 18th century. Today’s fortress was built. Even Napoleon besieged Acre – but failed. Nowadays Napoleonic cannons can be admired on the ramparts. The medieval citadel is dominated by the “Tower of Damnation”. You can find the oldest hospital of the Order of St. John from 1090 with Middle High German sayings. The old town of Akko was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001
Masada Archaeological Site (2001)
The former fortress Masada can only be reached by cable car or via a narrow footpath. It is located at an altitude of approx. 100 m at the southwest end of the Dead Sea. Masada was founded by King Herod the Great, who died in 40-4 BC. Lived, built. It served as a refuge against his subjects who threatened him.
In AD 66, the Zealots occupied the city, which was then driven to their own death by the Romans in AD 72 after a long siege. You can see the Dead Sea and the Jordanian Mountains from the walls of the city.
In the north there are ruins of that time. The ruins of the palace of Herod, the oldest synagogue that we know and the ritual baths of the Zealots are worth seeing.
The Masada archaeological site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2001
The “White City” of Tel Aviv (2003)
In the years 1930 to 1948 the “White City” of Tel Aviv was built according to plans by the British urban planning architect Sir Patrick Geddes. The influence of the Bauhaus was implemented here in a new cultural context
The White City was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2003. A detailed description can be found at Goruma under White City of Tel Aviv
Biblical Settlements – Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba (2005)
The “tells” are inhabited hills, which were created in earlier times by repeated settlements and can be found in the Mediterranean region. In the Tells in Israel there are still ruins of biblical origin in Megiddo, Hazor and Beer Sheba. In the early days, underground water supply systems were built in these tells, which can still be seen today. From other finds, such as the ruins of palaces and the city fortifications, one can conclude that there was brisk trade and urban life in the Bronze and Iron Ages. The biblical settlements were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005
Frankincense Route and Desert Cities in the Negev (2005)
The Incense Route stretched for many kilometers through the Negev desert. The trade in frankincense and myrrh from southern Arabia to the ports of the Mediterranean took place here. The spice trade continued for over 500 years and the cities of Haluza, Mamshit, Avdat and Shivta had become economically, culturally and socially rich and independent.
The Incense Route and desert cities in the Negev were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005
Baha’i Holy Places in Haifa and Western Galilee (2008)
The shrines of the founders of the religions Báb and Bahá’u’lláh are the shrines and pilgrimage sites of the followers of the Baha’i religion.
This Persian religion originated in the 19th century. One shrine is located near Akko, the other is visible from afar in the city of Haifa on Mount Camel. There are various buildings, such as B. monuments, houses, gardens, cemeteries and graves of the founders of the religion. The Baha’i holy places in Haifa and Western Galilee were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008.
Church of the Nativity of Jesus (2012)
The Church of the Nativity of Jesus is located in Bethlehem and is the first world heritage site in Palestine with three nearby monasteries and the pilgrim path.
This church was built in the third century AD. Presumably built by Constantine the Great on the stable in which Jesus is said to have been born. In the middle of the apse one could see through a large opening into the grotto, in which one assumed Jesus was born. The church was then rebuilt in the 5th century. A staircase was created that led to the birth grotto. In the years 1161 to 1168 the church was restored by the crusaders.
In 1717, Catholics placed a silver star in the grotto with the inscription “Hic de virgine Maria Jesus Christ natus est” – This is where the Virgin Mary gave birth to Jesus Christ – which was removed several times and then replaced. About the use of the church there were some disputes between the different religions, all of which claim the church as their sanctuary (Greek Orthodox, Armenian, Catholic). For these reasons, the roof is not being renovated, since the individual parties cannot agree on it.
In 2002 the Israeli military laid siege to the church in which armed Palistinese had holed up.
The Church of the Nativity was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2012
Caves in Nahal Me’arot (2012)
Near Haifa in Israel l a 550 m high mountain range stretches in a south-easterly direction along the Mediterranean coast. There, in the Nahal Me’arot – located on the western slope – the four caves of Tabun, Jamal, el-Wad and Skhul can be found, in which people lived in the early days. Finds show that cultures existed there up to 500,000 years ago.
In the Tabun Cave, flint stones, animal bones, furs and human graves were found, which prove that the cave was inhabited. Tools for killing animals were also found. The bone finds and loam and clay soils show that there must have been a mild climate, for example gazelles, rhinos and game lived there at this time. Toothed implements and utensils for sowing and harvesting were also found.
Three complete skeletons and 11 more – incompletely preserved – were found in the Skhul cave.
In the El-Wad cave, evidence was found that animals were domesticated back then. It is the largest cave, and it is believed that part of it served as a food depot and meeting room. There were neatly crafted harpoons, flints, arrows and bows and hooks for fishing. Outside the cave, on a terrace in front of the cave, more than 100 burial sites have been excavated.
The El-Wad cave is open to visitors. The four caves were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2012.
Bet Guvrin and Maresha (Caves) (2014)
The cities of Eleutheropolis and Marissa (Maresha) are located in the Bet Guvrin National Park, which is approx. 30 km away from the city of Ashkelon in Judea.
In 1949 a kibbutz was founded here near the West Bank on the territory of an Arab village, which had been abandoned by its former residents after an attack by Israel. Today’s area, which covers an area of approx. 5 km², was declared a national park due to its extensive cave system.
The hilly terrain is made of sandstone. The highest hill is 400 m high. The entire caves were created by people who were used as tombs, storage rooms, etc. Over time, a widely ramified tunnel system with adjoining caves emerged.
The Roman amphitheater, which was used for gladiator fights, is particularly interesting for visitors. The cages for the animals, the arena and some of the mansions are well preserved.
Caves were dug there as early as King Rehoboam, son of King Solomon, who lived around 100 years before Christ. King. Rehoboam had stone marks and idols made on every hill. Worth seeing are:
- the cistern systems
- 80 so-called bell caves
- the Maze caves interconnected caves
- the Sidonian burial caves from the second to third centuries a. With wall paintings.
- the dovecote (columbarium)
Bet Guvrin and Maresha was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2014
Bet She’arim Necropolis (2015)
The necropolis (city of tombs) Bet She’arim is considered a symbol of Jewish renewal. Bet She’arim is not far from the port city of Haifa.
After the last resistance of the Jews against the Romans, rabbis founded a religious center in what is now Haifa, which soon after became the seat of the Sanhedrin – the Jewish supreme council and court.
The famous Rabbi Jehuda Hanassi (150-220 AD) wrote the Mishna here – the writing of the Torah, which was previously orally transmitted, and therefore one of the most important collections of religious laws of rabbinic Judaism.
The Mishnah, together with the younger Gemara, forms the Talmud. Hanassi and other religious scholars were buried in catacombs under the city.
Since numerous Jews from the Middle East wanted to be buried here with the religious scholars, a large necropolis was built by the 4th century.
Up to 400 deceased were buried in the 26 catacombs. The richly decorated sarcophagi were made of marble, limestone, wood, clay or lead – but are no longer present here.
However, 130 limestone coffins were found in one of the catacombs, fragments of which are exhibited in various museums in Israel. The Bet She’arim necropolis was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2015.
Old City and City Walls of Jerusalem (2017)
The old city and the city walls of Jerusalem are special in that this world cultural heritage has not been assigned to any country by UNESCO for political reasons. Deviating from this, we represent this world heritage site both under Israel and the Palestinian territories. The old town and the city walls of Jerusalem were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in July 2017 at the suggestion of Jordan.