Holidays and national customs in Sweden
There are a number of public holidays that do not have a fixed date, but are based on the location of Easter. Easter takes place on the first Sunday that follows the first full moon after the beginning of spring. Ash Wednesday, the beginning of Lent, which ends on Holy Saturday, is 46 days before Holy Saturday. The date for Pentecost is then 50 days after Easter. Corpus Christi is celebrated on the second Thursday after Pentecost. Orthodox Christians celebrate All Saints on the first Sunday after Pentecost. For Catholic Christians, however, the date is fixed on November 1st. On October 31, Protestants celebrate Reformation Day. The Halloween festival also takes place on this day.
|January 1||New Year|
|1st of May||Labor Day|
|Friday and Saturday after June 21||Midsummerfest (solstice celebration)|
Source: Countryaah – Sweden Holidays
|Date||Kind of Uses|
|13th January||Tjugondedag jul (Twentieth Christmas Day, also Knut) End of Christmas time.|
|April, 30||Valborgsmässoafton (Walpurgis Night)|
|1st of May||Valborg (student festival)|
|6th of June||Svenska flaggans dag (National Day of Sweden)|
|13th December||Lucia festival with a white clad Lucia with lights on her head. It is the feast of St. Lucia, the martyr (died Dec. 13, 304), whose relics are venerated in Venice.|
The Kräftskiva festival is celebrated at the beginning of the cancer season and can take place at any time. All over Sweden, the Midsummer Night Festival is celebrated with singing, dancing, eating and drinking a lot.
In northern Sweden, the Surströmmingsfest is celebrated at the end of summer.
To fish in Sweden you only need a valid fishing permit (fiskekort) for the respective body of water. The costs vary depending on the species and stock. Fishing in the sea and in the five large lakes Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren, Hjälmaren and Storsjön is free. Fishing permits are available from the local tourist office or sports shop, sometimes also from the kiosk.
Golf is widespread in Sweden. There are about 400 places.
You can find beautiful canoeing routes almost everywhere in Sweden. Boats can be rented at all canoeing areas.
White water rafting and sailing are particularly popular. Mooring fees are relatively low in Sweden.
Riding is one of those sports that have a special appeal due to the beautiful nature in Sweden.
The best winter sports areas in Sweden are in the mountains of Värmland and Dalarna, in Funäsdalen and the Åre area in western Jämtland and in Lapland. The season starts in December and goes through March and April.
When hiking in the mountains you can admire the beauty of the Swedish national parks in Lapland or the mountains in Dalarna, Jämtland or Härjedalen.
Sweden is made for cycling. The 2,590 km long and well signposted Sverigeleden cycle path leads through the country – past the most beautiful sights.
In Sweden, the Allemannsrätten (Jedermannsrecht) applies to stays in nature. This right includes, among other things, that one can move freely in nature, but must remain out of sight of private houses. You can also camp in the wild. Campfires are allowed if there is no risk of forest fire. Dogs must be kept on a leash between March 1st and August 20th. Fishing by the sea and in the large lakes (Vättern, Vänern, Mälaren) is then permitted without a fishing license (fiskekort). There are a few other rules and duties, such as disposing of your own waste and treating nature with respect.
It is common practice in Sweden to address each other by first name. Only in very formal situations do you address yourself with “Sie” and your last name. Pubs and bars are taboo for under 20s. In some discos, only those over 25 are allowed in.
Prostitution is forbidden in the country, although not the prostitute but the suitor are punished.
The ideas of what is meant by a particularly favorable travel climate depend on a number of factors. Pure cultural travelers certainly see the climate differently than people who want to spend a pure beach holiday, for example. The state of health or age can also play an important role. In principle, every season in Sweden has its own special charm. Even winter, when you can walk or hike so wonderfully through lonely, dark and snow-covered forests. In summer or autumn you can also go on a fishing holiday in the country – without the bureaucraticism that is common in Germany. And nobody should miss a visit on midsummer night – then all of Sweden is on its feet.
The following table shows a range of climate data for the country.
|Month||Average number of rainy days||Mean maximum temperatures in (°C)||Mean minimum temperatures in (°C)|
|January||16||-1 to 2||05|
|February||14||-1 to 2||05|
Sweden: national parks
There are 29 national parks and around 1,300 nature reserves in Sweden, which together cover an area of over 32,000 km².
|Name of the park||Province (län)||Area in km²||Particularities|
|Abisko||Norrbotten County||77||The park is located about 200 km north of the Arctic Circle|
|Ängsö||Stockholm County||1.7||The park is located on an island in the Stockholm archipelago|
|Blå Jungfrun||Kalmar Lan||1.98 with water area0.66 only the isla||The park is located on an uninhabited island off the northern tip of Öla|
|Bjornlandet||Västerbotten Countyin Lapla||1.1||The park consists of almost untouched jungle|
|Dalby Söderskog||Skåne County||0.36||The park is located about 10 km east of Lund in the south of the country|
|Djurö||Västra Götalands län||2.4||The park is located on islands in the middle of Lake Vänern|
|Fulufjället||Dalarna County||384||The park is on the border with Norway and only became a national park in 2002|
|Färnebofjärden||Västra Götalands län||101||The park is located on the lower reaches of the Dalälven river|
|Garphyttan||Örebro län||1.1||The park is located west of the city of Örebro.|
|Gotska Sandön||Gotland County||45||The park is located on the island of the same name, 40 km north of Fårö|
|Hamra||Gävleborg County||0.28||The park, located in the middle of Sweden, is the country’s smallest national park|
|Haparanda Skärgård||Norrbotten County||60||The park is located in the archipelago at the northern end of the Gulf of Bothnia|
|Kosterhavet||Västra Götalands län||a total of 365 km² ofwhich 12 km² land area||Inaugurated on September 9, 2009, the park is Sweden’s first marine national park|
|Norra Kvill||Kalmar Lan||1.2||The park consists of a primeval coniferous forest in the highlands of Småla|
|Muddus||Norrbotten County||495||The park, located in the far north of Lapland, consists of half (primeval) forest, the rest are lakes and moors|
|Padjelanta||Norrbotten County||1,945||The park, located in Lapland on the border with Norway, is part of the Laponia UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Pieljekaise||Norrbotten County||154||The park in Lapland has a primeval birch forest|
|Sarek||Norrbotten County||1,970||The park in Lapland is part of the Laponia UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Sculescogen||Västernorrlands Lan||24||The park is located in a mountainous region on the Gulf of Bothnia south of Umeå|
|Stenshuvud||Skåne County||3.9||The park is located in southern Sweden in the Skåne landscape|
|Stora Sjöfallet||Norrbotten County||1,278||The park in Lapland is part of the Laponia UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Store Mosse||Jönköpings län||78.6||The park was established in 1982 and includes the largest moorland area in southern Sweden|
|Sånfjället||Jämtland County||103||The park is known for its bear population, the highest mountain in the park is Högfjället at 1,278 m|
|Söderåsen||Skåne County||16.3||The park is located in the far south of the country|
|Tiveden||Västra Götalands län||13.5||The park is located between Lake Vättern and Lake Värnern.|
|Tresticklan||Västra Götalands län||29||The park is located in the southwest on the border with Norway|
|Tyresta||Stockholm County||20||The park is located southeast of Stockholm in a hill country formed by the Ice Age with primeval coniferous forests and numerous stone blocks|
|Töfsingdalen||Dalarna County||16.2||Located in the west on the border with Norway, the park is difficult to reach and of great wilderness|
|Vadvetjåkka||Norrbotten County||26.4||The park is located in the northernmost part of Sweden in Northern Lapland on the border with Norway.|
Cities in Sweden
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Presents the way that SE stands for the nation of Sweden as a two-letter acronym.
Despite its area of 449,964 km², Sweden only has around 9.2 million residents and therefore not too many large cities. All cities in Sweden with more than around 60,000 residents are listed below.
Plus Ystad and Vimmerby. The information on latitude and longitude relates to the city center.
|Stockholm||around 1.3 million||59 ° 21 ′ N.||018 ° 03` E|
|Gothenburg||around 510,000||57 ° 41 ′ N.||011 ° 57 ′ E|
|Malmo||around 250,000||55 ° 37 ′ N.||012 ° 59 ′ E|
|Uppsala||around 130,000||59 ° 52 ′ N.||017 ° 38 ′ E|
|Västerås||around 107,000||55 ° 37 ′ N.||012 ° 59 ′ E|
|Örebro||around 98,000||59 ° 17 ′ N.||015 ° 13 ′ E|
|Linkoping||around 97,500||58 ° 25 ′ N.||015 ° 37 ′ E|
|Helsingborg||around 91,500||56 ° 03 ′ N.||012 ° 42 ′ E|
|Jonkoping||around 84,500||57 ° 47 ′ N.||014 ° 08 ′ E|
|Norrkoping||around 83,500||56 ° 36 ′ N.||016 ° 11 ′ E|
|Lu||around 76,000||55 ° 43 ′ N.||013 ° 12 ′ E|
|Umeå||around 75,500||63 ° 50 ′ N.||020 ° 17 ′ E|
|Gävle||around 69,000||60 ° 41 ′ N.||017 ° 08 ′ E|
|Borås||around 63,500||57 ° 44 ′ N.||012 ° 56 ′ E|
|Södertälje||around 60,500||59 ° 12 ′ N.||017 ° 37 ′ E|
|Eskilstuna||around 60,000||59 ° 17 ′ N.||015 ° 13 ′ E|
|Ystad *||around 19,000|
|Vimmerby **||around 8,000|
Ystad is certainly known to most people in Europe as the place where Kurt Wallander, a fictional character from the novel by Henning Mankell (1948-2015), worked as a detective.
In Vimmerby, the great Swedish writer Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) was born on November 14th, 1907 in the vicarage of Näs. She had also spent her childhood and youth here. After becoming pregnant, she moved her center of life to Stockholm.
She became famous through the book Pippi Longstocking, which she originally wrote as a story for her sick daughter Karin (later: Karin Nyman) in the winter of 1941. The book was sold around 66 million times in the period that followed. Other successful books by her were “Ronja the robber’s daughter” and “Michel from Lönneberga, or the” Children from Bullerbü. “Astrid Lindgren lived from 1941 until her death on January 28, 2002 at Dalagatan 46 in the Vasa district in Stockholm
On the outskirts of Vimmerby is the theme park “Astrid Lindgren’s World”, which is an Eldorado especially for children. And 20 km further is the film village of Småland, where numerous items from Astrid Lindgren’s films are on display.
The Riddarhuset (knight’s house), which is located in Stockholm’s old town, was the meeting house of the Swedish nobility between 1641 and 1674.
The Stockholms stadshus is the city hall of the capital Stockholm and houses the seat of the city government and the city parliament. It was built between 1911 and 1923 in the style of Swedish national romanticism.
The Øresund Bridge connects Copenhagen (Denmark) with Malmö (Sweden) and was completed in July 2000. It has a total length of 7,845 m.
The Öland Bridge connects Kalmar on the Swedish mainland with Färjestaden on the island of Öland. It is 6,072 m long. The bridge was completed in 1972.
The Svinesund Bridge crosses the Svinesund Strait, which forms part of the border between Norway and Sweden. Europastraße 6 (E6) leads over the bridges. The two-lane bridge with a length of 420 m was built between 1939 and 1942.
There are a large number of small and large museums worth seeing in the many cities of the country.
It would go beyond the scope of this article and also make it extremely confusing to present them all here. We also assume that visitors to the country are more likely to seek museums in one or more cities than in the whole country.
Therefore you will find interesting museums – among other sights – presented in detail in the following cities:
Viking settlements Birka and Hovgården
The Viking settlements Birka and Hovgården were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1993.
Arctic Cultural Landscape Lapland
The Arctic Cultural Landscape Lapland was declared a World Heritage Site in 1996.
Karlskrona naval port In
1998 the Karlskrona naval port was added to the list of world cultural heritage. He was ordered by Charles XI. Built in 1680 and the main base of the Swedish Navy.
Skogskyrkogården (cemetery) near Stockholm was added to the World Heritage List in 1994.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Visby on Gotland was the most modern and largest Hanseatic town in the Baltic region. German, Russian and Gotland merchants determined life and built stone warehouses as well as churches. Most of them are in ruins today. In return, the medieval cityscape is shaped not least by the mighty wall, which forms a ring around the entire city. It is one of the few completely preserved city walls in Europe. In 1995 the city was added to the list of world cultural heritage.
The Stockholm Palace, also called Kungliga slottet, is the royal palace in the capital Stockholm. It is located on the island of Stadsholmen. The castle was built between 1690 and 1750 and is an impressive baroque building
Castle Bjärka-Säby Castle near Linköping in Östergötland was built between 1791 and 1800. The current baroque style comes from a renovation in the 19th century.
Pleasure Palace Drottningholm Palace
The former royal pleasure palace Drottningholm Palace has been the residence of the royal family since 1982. Drottningholm Palace was the first Swedish cultural monument to be included on the World Heritage List.
Castle Gripsholm Castle in Mariefred was built in 1537 by Gustav I. Wasa. Today there is a museum in the castle.
Renaissance Kalmar Castle The Kalmar
Renaissance Castle in Kalmar is located on a peninsula on the Baltic Sea coast and is very well preserved. The castle dates from around 1180 and was built to protect against pirates and other enemies.
Castle Läckö Castle on the island of Kållandsö in Lake Vänern is one of the most impressive baroque castles in Sweden.
Castle Löfstad Castle in Norrköping in Östergötland was built from 1637 and renovated between 1670 and 1680 and in the 18th century. The castle and furnishings have been preserved unchanged since 1926 and can be visited. The castle was included in the list of Swedish cultural monuments.
Mariedal Castle Mariedal
Castle near Skara is a beautiful baroque castle.
Nääs Castle Nääs
Castle near Gothenburg dates back to the 16th century and was rebuilt in the 19th century in a classical style.
Castle Övedskloster Castle near Sjöbo is a typical Rococo manor. It was built from 1768 to 1776.
Castle Rydboholm Castle near Vaxholm dates from the 16th century. The Wasa Tower is a typical medieval defense tower. There you can visit Gustav Wasa’s study chamber with a facility from the 16th century.
Skokloster Castle The Skokloster
Castle in Uppland was built shortly after the end of the Thirty Years’ War. The castle’s fittings and furnishings were never completed. You can still visit the construction site with tools and other aids from the 17th century in the ballroom.
Skottorp Castle Skottorp
Castle near Laholm was built in the 17th century. In the 1820s it was rebuilt and modernized in the classical style. The interior is in the Empire style. The castle was added to the list of Swedish cultural monuments in 1986.
Sofiero Castle Sofiero
Castle is near Helsingborg. The castle from 1864 was built as a summer residence for Crown Prince Oskar and his wife Sophia of Nassau.
Renaissance Vadstena Castle
The Renaissance Vadstena Castle dates from the 16th century. It is located on Lake Vättern in Vadstena.
Vittskövle Castle Vittskövle
Castle near Kristianstad is a well-preserved Renaissance castle. It was built around 1550.
Important opera and theaters
There are a large number of important opera and theaters in the many cities of the country.
It would go beyond the scope of this article and also make it extremely confusing to present them all here.
We also assume that visitors to the country are more likely to look for the theaters or opera houses in a specific city and not in the whole country.
You will therefore find interesting opera and theaters – among other sights and further information – in the following cities:
Churches and monasteries
Church in Husaby
The current church in Husaby was built around the year 1100 in Romanesque style and provided with Gothic pointed arches in the 14th century. Between 1900 and 1902 the church was renovated, with the wall and roof paintings from the 15th century being destroyed.
Church The Jokkmokk Church was built in 1887/88 according to plans by the architect Ernst Abraham Jacobsson. The church is an outstanding example of wooden architecture from the late 19th century.
Kalmar Cathedral was built between 1660 and 1699.
Kiruna Church Kiruna
Church was built between 1903 and 1912 according to plans by the architect Gustaf Wickman. It is one of the buildings of Swedish national romantic architecture and combines American wooden architecture with influences from Norwegian stave churches and Sami wooden huts.
Linköping Cathedral Linköping
Cathedral is one of Sweden’s best preserved and richly decorated medieval cathedrals. The construction of the cathedral began around 1230, and it took more than 250 years to build.
Lund Cathedral Lund
Cathedral was built in the Romanesque style in 1103 and is the oldest cathedral in Scandinavia.
Mariestad Cathedral Mariestad
Cathedral is one of the last churches in Sweden to be built in Gothic style.
Cathedral The Skara Cathedral was built in the 13th century in Gothic style and is one of the oldest cathedral churches in Sweden.
St. Erik Cathedral
The Gothic St. Erik Cathedral in Uppsala is the tallest church building in Scandinavia at 118.7 m. It was started in 1260 and inaugurated in 1435. The cathedral is both the coronation and burial place of Swedish kings.
The Varnhems Klosterkirche is the burial church of the medieval royal dynasty Erik and Birger Jarls from the Folk dynasty and the Chancellor Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie.
Varnhem Monastery The Varnhem
Monastery was founded in 1150 by the Cistercians.
Vadstenas Monastery Church
The Vadstenas Monastery Church is located in the city of Vadstena and dates from 1346. The monastery was planned by St. Birgitta and consecrated in 1384.
Gammelstad Church District
The Gammelstad Church District in Luleå was added to the World Heritage List in 1996. The stone church dates from the 13th century. The church village extends around the church.
University of Stockholm (Stockholms universitet)
The year 1878 can be seen as the founding year, when chemistry, geology, mathematics and physics began to teach here. From 1904 it was then possible to do a doctorate at Stockholm University.
But it was not until 1960 that Stockholm University was converted into a state university. The university is located in the middle of the world’s first urban national park in Stockholm. The university is one of a total of 16 colleges and universities in Stockholm. More than 50,000 students are currently enrolled here who study at the following faculties:
Faculty of Humanities Faculty of Natural Sciences
Faculty of Law
Faculty of State and Social Sciences
Together with the Royal Technical University, two research centers for physics, astronomy, biotechnology and computer science are operated. Stockholm University has approximately 4,600 faculty, 1,800 of whom are visiting teachers and lecturers, and 35,000 students.
SE-106 91 Stockholm
Tel: + 46 – (0) 8 – 16 20 00
Fax: + 46 – (0) 8 – 15 95 22
The Karolinska Institute is one of the most important medical universities in the world. It is located in Solna near Stockholm. The Karolinska University Hospital in Solna and Huddinge, which consists of two large hospitals, are attached to the institute. Around 5,500 medical students study at the university. In order to improve the training of military doctors, King Charles XIII founded 1810 the institute under the name “Kongl. Carolinska medico-chirurgiska institutet”. And in 1861 it was given university status. The institute is instrumental in the nomination of the Nobel Prize winners for “Physiology and Medicine”.
171 77 Stockholm
Tel: 00 – (0) 8-524 800 00 (vx)
Fax: 00 – (0) 8-31 11 01
Royal Stockholm Technical College
University of Lund (Lunds universitet)
The university was founded in 1666 and inaugurated in 1668. It should be mentioned that the “Studium generale”, a predecessor of a university, existed as early as 1425. Around 25,000 students study at six faculties at the university. The Helsingborg campus with 3,000 students is a branch of the University of Lund. After Uppsala University, it is the second oldest in Scandinavia. The university is divided into the following faculties:
University of Gothenburg (Göteborgs universitet)
The University of Gothenburg was founded in 1891 with the help of donations. Around 25,000 full-time students study at its eight faculties with around 60 institutes and departments.
405 30 Göteborg
Tel: 0046 – (0) 31-786 00 00
University of Uppsala (Uppsala universitet)
The University of Uppsala is the oldest still existing university in all of Scandinavia. It was founded in 1477 by Archbishop Jakob Ulfsson and the regent Sten Sture the Elder.
The main library of the university, the Carolina Rediviva, built in 1622, is a gem. Around 20,000 students study at the university.
The university is divided into the following faculties:
Theology Science and technology Uppsala universitet Box 256 751 05 Uppsala
Tel: 00 – (0) 18-471 00 00
Fax: 00 – (0) 18-471 20 00
Natural beauties, national parks
The midnight sun north of the Arctic Circle can be admired from late May to late July. During this time it is light day and night. But even further south in Sweden it does not get completely dark in summer.
Northern Lights or Northern Lights Northern Lights
or Northern Lights are bright, iridescent light phenomena that can be observed north of the Arctic Circle in September and March. This natural phenomenon is caused by the solar energy that reaches the earth with the solar wind. For more information, see the Northern Lights.
There are 29 national parks and around 1,300 nature reserves in Sweden, which together cover an area of over 32,000 km2. A tabular representation of the parks can be found at Goruma under National Parks
Kolmården, north of Norrköping, is one of the largest animal parks in Europe. It is partly designed as a safari park through which you can drive by bus or your own car. You can find lions, moose, zebras and tigers here. In the zoo there is also one of the largest and most beautiful dolphinariums, in which wonderful dolphin shows can be seen.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Drottningholm Royal Summer Palace
The former pleasure palace Drottningholm is located on the island of Lovön in Lake Mälaren, and the royal family has lived here since 1982. The castle was built in 1580 but burned down completely in 1661. The widow of King Karl X Gustav had a new palace built in the Baroque style and in later years an English garden was laid out around the palace. New buildings were planned in 1761, and so the Chinese castle in Rococo style with numerous oriental and Chinese patterns and the Drottningholm Theater were built. The theater is a particularly well-preserved baroque building in which the sets from earlier performances are kept. The summer palace was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1991
Viking settlements of Birka and Hovgården
The places Birka and Hovgården are located on two neighboring islands in Lake Mälaren. Birka, an important trading place, is located on Björkö and Hovgården, the seat of kings in the 8th to 10th centuries, on Adelsön. At the time, commercial goods were mostly transported by water, and so the islands were predestined as transhipment points for barter goods. The city of Birka was an important trading center for the Vikings. At that time, Lake Mälaren belonged to the Baltic Sea, only after the land was raised it was separated from the Baltic Sea – but today it is still connected to the Baltic Sea via a canal. The cities of Stockholm, Västerås and Södertälje are located on the lake. Birka was abandoned at the end of the 10th century, and no apparent reason has been found to this day.
There was a harbor on Adelsön with the rune stone Håkanstenen at the entrance. Kings are buried in the approx. 2,300 barrows, as evidenced by grave goods. In the north was the Skansberget hill fort, which was probably used for protection and defense, and evidence of settlement life at that time can be found in the so-called “black earth”, which archaeologists evaluated. In 1872, during excavations, Islamic silver coins and jewelry were found, which also proved that the Vikings lived and traded here. The Viking settlements were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1993.
The Swedish ironworks Engelsberg is located approx. 100 km from Gothenburg in the municipality of Fagersta. In 1681 an ironworks was founded there because iron ore had been found in the surrounding pits. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the factory became a modern ironworks, which included a manor with a park, several administrative buildings and workers’ apartments. The technology with all the equipment in the workshops and halls is still available, so you can visit the blast furnaces, the forge and a tavern, among other things. Although the plant was expanded with the construction of a rolling mill in 1917, the plant was shut down two years later. The ironworks was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1993
Rock carvings from Tanum
The rock carvings at Tanum are north of Gothenburg in western Sweden on a rocky coast with islands in front of them. The age of the incisions is dated to around 3,000 years. About 10,000 scratches were found and numerous different motifs were found, so that one could and can well understand life at that time. Six sites are particularly noteworthy, they consist of large rock platforms and are all easy to distinguish. Some of the carvings show hunting scenes, weddings, snakes or men with weapons. The rock carvings were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994
Skogskyrkogården (cemetery) near Stockholm
Skogskyrkogården cemetery is located in south Stockholm. It was laid out in 1917 and expanded until 1940. The area of the cemetery is approx. 1.1 km². The chapel is kept simple, its only ornament is a golden angel of death. The Tallum Pavilion, an administration building, was built 6 years later, and the Resurrection Chapel was built 8 years later. In 1930 a stone wall was built that surrounds the cemetery. The cemetery is adapted to the landscape. The crematorium with a third chapel was built in 1940 at the main entrance. There is a sculpture “The Resurrection”, designed by the sculptor John Lundqvist. The tombstones are laid out under trees and are all kept simple. Skogskyrkogården cemetery is an important example of the combination of landscape and culture in the 20th century. Century century. The cemetery was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994
Hanseatic city of Visby on the island of Gotland
The city of Visby is located on the west coast of the Baltic island of Gotland and was inhabited by the Vikings. However, there are only a few remains from this period, at least remains of the wooden houses of the Vikings have been found. From the 12th to the 14th century, the city was a very important hub for the Hanseatic League in the Baltic Sea. It was settled by Danes, Germans and Russians who traded here. The houses from this time are well preserved, as is the 3.6 km long fortification wall of the city with the Visborg ruins. The Powder Tower, the oldest surviving building in the city, was erected in 1151.
In 1525 Visby was attacked by the Lübeck Hanseatic League and many buildings and churches were destroyed. Only the St. Mary’s Church remained, today’s St. Mary’s Cathedral. The port has silted up and the island’s university is on its former site. The Hanseatic city of Visby was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1995
Gammelstad church district in Luleå
Gammelstad is located at the end of the Gulf of Bothnia in the north in the northern Swedish city of Luleå and is its well-preserved old town. It consists of 424 wooden houses and a stone church. The houses were only inhabited on Sundays and public holidays by visitors to the church, who often came from far away. Today’s Gammelstad was an island in the mouth of the Lule älv river. In the 12th century Gammelstad became the center of the parish. The village’s stone church dates from the 13th century. The church village extends around the church. The church district was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1996
Arctic cultural landscape of Lapland
Laponia is located in Lapland north of the Arctic Circle and is populated by the indigenous people, the Sami. They live mainly from reindeer herding. The area of the protected area is approx. 10,000 km². Four national parks, the Muddus, Sarek, Padjelanta and Stora Sjöfallet parks as well as five other nature reserves are part of the world heritage. In this area are mountains, glaciers, raised bogs, forests, lakes and rivers. The area offers protection to endangered animal and plant species. In 1986, 73,000 reindeer, the Sami main source of income, were radioactively contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and had to be slaughtered. As a result, the livelihood of the Sami was for a time seriously endangered.
Karlskrona naval port
The Karlskrona naval port was built in 1680 and has been the main base of the Swedish navy ever since. The port is located on an island in the Baltic Sea, in front of which there are numerous other smaller islands. The port and its facilities are surrounded by a protective wall, which is still partially preserved, to the north of which are three powder houses. The dock, which was built in 1716, was blown out of the rock and to get it anhydrous it had to be pumped for three long with almost 400 men.
In the 19th century stone barriers were sunk into the bay and only two smaller openings were left for ships to enter the area in order to prevent foreigners from entering the area. Dry trenches were dug to protect against storm surges. Two protective towers were built with particularly thick walls so that they could withstand cannon attacks.
The naval port was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998.
Archipelago – Kvarken Archipelago
The Kvarken archipelago and the archipelago lie on the Gulf of Bothnia, roughly at the level of the city of Umeå. The distance from Sweden to Finland is about 80 km here. The archipelago includes around 5,600 islands. They consist of strange moraines that were formed by the melting of the pack ice that accumulated 24,000 to 10,000 years ago. The archipelago grows annually by the “postglacial land uplift” (land rise of the area that was covered by inland ice during the last ice age) by about 1 km². In the middle of Kvarken stands a lighthouse on one of the many islands that Gustave Eiffel designed.
The archipelago and the Kvarken archipelago were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as a cross-border world heritage site (including Finland) in 2000 and expanded in 2006.
Agricultural landscape of southern Öland
The island of Öland is located in the Baltic Sea and has been connected to the mainland by a 6 km long bridge since 1973. Due to erosion, the south has a thin layer of earth and therefore has heather, the so-called Stora Alvaret. Only small trees and bushes grow here, so this Stora Alvar is the habitat for specially adapted flora and fauna. The endemic (only growing here) Öland sunflower grows here and the variety of bird species is great. The area has been inhabited for around 7,000 years and shows that nature and people can be in harmony.
The local churches were almost all built in the Romanesque style with gable roofs and a tower at both ends of the nave, but most of the churches were rebuilt. Two churches from the 12th century in Hulterstad and Resmö are the only churches that have remained in the old style. In Kalmarsund, between the island and the mainland, lies the small granite island of Blå Jungfrun with numerous wetlands.
Öland was founded from 7,000 BC. Inhabited by hunters and gatherers later in the Early Stone Age by farmers. On Öland there are four graves from this period with a separate entrance and numerous sites from all ancient times, such as the barrows from the Bronze Age. Large castles, such as Gråborg, Ismantorp and Eketorp, date from the years 400 to 550 AD. The ruins of Eketorp Castle are located in the south of the island and have been reconstructed and rebuilt.
Öland has a large number of windmills, almost every farmer ran his own and thus covered his own need for flour. The most important remaining mill is the Björnhovda kvarnar mill. The lighthouses of Långe Erik and Långe Jan are the landmarks of the island.
The agricultural landscape was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2000
Historic industrial landscape “Großer Kupferberg” in Falun
Falun is a town with around 36,000 residents in the Swedish province of Dalarnas län in central Sweden. This historical industrial landscape illustrates the technical history of opencast mining since the 13th century. Until the 19th century, the Falun mine was one of the largest copper producers and influenced the development of mining worldwide. This historic industrial landscape was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001.
Varberg radio station
The transmitter is located near Grimeton in the municipality of Varberg, about 80 km from Gothenburg. With its buildings and technical facilities – including six 127 m high antenna towers that are 380 m apart – it is an early testimony to wireless transatlantic communication and the only surviving example of a larger transmitter from the era of wireless communication. The transmitter originally transmitted with the help of extremely long waves (longitudinal waves) of 16.13 kHz = m. For the official inauguration of the station planned by the electrical engineer Ernst Fredrik Werner Alexanderson (1878-1975) on July 2, 1925, the Swedish King Gustav V (1858-1950) also appeared. Since such long waves penetrate the water and propagate there, the transmitter was used by the Swedish military for communication with their smoked submarines after the Second World War, but closed in 1995. In 2004 the radio station Varberg was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The Struve Arch is a cross-border scientific monument with a length of 2,821 km. This geodetic survey sheet extends over ten countries. It starts in Hammerfest in Norway and then continues through Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova and ends in Ukraine. There is a chain of geodetic measuring stations on the Struve Arch. It was used to measure parts of the earth’s surface and had its origin in the observatory of Tartu, of which Struve was director from 1820-1839. More details under Struve arches
The entire Struvebogen was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2005.
Wooden farmhouses in the province of Hälsingland
The province of Hälsingland is located about 300 km north of Stockholm on the Gulf of Bothnia. In the province there are the three larger cities Hudiksvall (about 15,000 residents), Söderhamn (about 10,000 residents) and Bollnäs (about 12,000 residents)
This mountainous area is heavily forested and slopes down towards the sea. A total of more than 1,000 wooden farmhouses were built here. Seven of these Hälsingehöfe were included in the world heritage – all farms. As a rule, the houses are two-story, with a few exceptions they also have three floors. They were built between 1800 and 1870. The interior of the houses is individually designed in different styles. They provide information about the way of life of the farmers in the area at that time. The farmers were proud and independent and lived generously. Some courtyards were only built to celebrate festivals. The seven courtyards are:
- Guest givars in Vallsta
- Kristofers in Stene
- Jon-Lars Pallars
- Pallars in Långhed
- Fågelsjö gammelgård
- Erik-Anders in Asta.
- Bommars in Letsbo
The wooden farmhouses in the province of Hälsingland were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2012.