Croatia: Holidays, national customs, climate
|January 1||New Year|
|6th January||Holy three kings|
|March April||Easter Sunday and Easter Monday|
|1st of May||May Day|
|June 10||Corpus Christi|
|June 22||Anti-Fascism Day|
|25th June||National holiday|
|5th of August||Day of Victory and Gratitude|
|15th of August||Assumption Day|
|8th October||independence Day|
|November 1||All Saints Day|
|December 25th and 26||1st and 2nd Christmas Day|
Source: Countryaah – Croatia Holidays
|Date||kind of event|
|July 1st – August 15||Zagreb summer festival|
|July 19-23||International Folklore Show, Zagreb|
|June 24th – July 8||International children’s festival in Šibenik|
|July 10th – August 25||Summer festival in Dubrovnik|
|June 30th – June 2||Čakovaćki vezovi – folk embroidery exhibition|
|July August||Summer in Split – various events|
|July 4th – August 6||Music evenings in St. Donat, Zadar|
|July 8th – August 26||Music evenings in Osor|
|6th of August||Sinjska Alka – jousting games|
|during the holiday season||The Istrian cultural summer|
|September 22-24||The autumn events of Vinkovci|
|September 24th – October 8||Varaždin Baroque Evenings|
- The Mother of God of Bistrica
- The Mother of God of Trsat
- The mother of God of Sinj
- The Mother of God of the Island – Solin
- The Mother of God by Vocin
- The Mother of God of Hope – Aljmaš
- The Mother of God by Remete
- The Mother of God from Jerusalem – Krapina
- The pilgrimage site of the Holy Blood of Christ in Ludbreg
- Saint Joseph in Karlovac
The Sinj Knight Games “Sinjska Alka”
The Sinjska Alka is held every first Sunday in August in Sinj (37 km from Split). The jousting has a tradition of almost three hundred years and commemorates the heroic victory of the Sinjer over the Turkish conquerors in 1715.
Events in Pula
In July, the Croatian Film Festival has been held annually in the arena since 1954. Also in July, the popular music festival “Arena” takes place in the arena. In August there is the Art & Music Festival, a rock music festival.
Events in Rovinj
The Rovinj Grand Prix – international cycling race (February), on the Istrian Riviera – ATP tennis tournament (April), the Rovinj-Pesaro-Rovinj regatta (May), Modri biser – International Festival of Young Pop Singers (July), Grisia – Outdoor painting exhibition (August) – along the most famous street of the old town, many European and Croatian artists exhibit their works, the Rovinj Festival (August), St. Euphemia (September 16), the day of the patron saint of the city of Rovinj with a rich gastronomic offer, lots of entertainment and fireworks.
Events in Split
There is also plenty of culture and entertainment on offer, especially in summer when the city with its squares and courtyards of old palaces is transformed into a large open-air stage. In the summer season (mid-July to mid-August) the traditional Split summer (dramas, operas, concerts) takes place. The Saturday evenings are dedicated to serious music. There are also pop festivals, the art summer (“Art-ljeto”), folklore events, the folk festival “Dani Radunice” and others. Other events during the year are the Marulic days (April), the Mediterranean book week (October) and others traditional events such as Heiligenkreuz, the flower fair, the Split Bal, the wine fair, etc. City Day is celebrated on May 7th, the day of the patron saint St. Domnius.
There are several theaters in Split, including the Croatian National Theater built in 1893, which organizes the Split Summer and Marulic Days theater festivals, as well as the Youth Theater and the Split Puppet Theater.
Events in Zadar
Art and culture are also very important. The music evenings in St. Donatus Church (old music), the New Theater Festival, the Zadar Theater Summer and various events in the field of fine arts have a long tradition. Chrysogonus Day is celebrated as well as the city festival of Zadar (November 24th).
LADO – Croatian folk music and folk dance ensemble
LADO is an archaic Slavic word that is often used as a refrain in ancient ritual chants in northwestern Croatia. It is a synonym for the words “good”, “dear”, “familiar”. The Croatian folk music and folk dance ensemble LADO was founded in Zagreb in 1949 as a professional, state-owned ensemble. Its 36 excellent dancers, who are also excellent singers, can easily transform themselves from a folk dance group into a representative folk music choir, while the 15 virtuoso musicians play on forty different instruments. In its impressive choreographic and musical repertoire, LADO primarily cultivates the original folk art, which has become its trademark all over the world.
Due to the unique collection of authentic folk costumes of exceptionally high value (more than 1000 complete sets), each concert of the LADO ensemble is also a specific review of the original, traditional Croatian folk costumes. If you read in a commentary on a concert by the LADO ensemble that its performance is like pure spring water: clear and fresh, good for everyone, on whose surface people and the whole people and their culture are reflected, then that is perhaps the best Description.
Croatia Open Umag
RAFTING (river, routes)
- Cetina, Studenci-Tisne stine
- Zrmanja, Veliki buk-Muško
- Una, Štrba ? Ki buk-Losk
- Dobra, Gojak-Trošmarija
- Kupa, Izvor-Hrvatsko
- Mrežnica, Kikin most-Tržič
Bol on the island of Brac
1. Sports airfield (LDRO):
Info: 123.500 MHz
Location: 4 km southeast of the city of Otocac
Runway: Grass 1620 x 50m
Direction: 150 – 330
GPS coordinates: 44 ° 50 ’45 “N/15 ° 17 ’36 “E
Approach: No obstacles
Auto-fuel, oil, 100LL Avgas Airport Rijeka (island Krk) 80 km
The airfield is ideal for parachutists
- Aero-Club “Pharos”Stari Grad, island of HvarSize of the island of Hvar: Fourth largest island in the Adriatic
Length: 68 km/greatest width: 11 km/299.7 km2
Sports airfield (LDSH):
Location: 1.2 km southeast of the City of Stari Grad
Runway: 700 m/Width: 30 m
Height: 29 m
Runway: Solid, stabilized terrain
Approach: no obstacles
GPS coordinates: 43 ° 10 ’50’ ‘N/16 ° 37’ 40 ” E
Direction of the runway: 100 – 280
Info: 123.500 MHz
car fuel, oil, 100LL Avgas Brac airport 18 km
- The mountain Ucka near Rijeka
- Tribalj mountain near Novi Vinodolski
- Golf courses in Motovnun in Istria
- Golf academy in Krasic
- Golf Club Pula
- Golf on the islands of Brijuni
- Golf Club Split
As in Yugoslavia, the role of individual ethnic groups during the war is “a sensitive issue”.
DID YOU KNOW THAT THE TIE IS FROM THE CROATS?
Although the history books say nothing about it, a small European people have conquered more of the world than Batu-Khan and the ancient Romans. Without hatred and weapons, this people set out from their homeland between the Panonian Valley and the Adriatic Sea in the middle of the 17th century to this conquest without much effort and reached countless places in the then known world. The traces of this conquest can still be seen everywhere today. The symbol is worn by people all over the planet. It is worn close to the heart, between shirt and jacket. It hugs people around the neck like a dear friend.
While the Thirty Years’ War was raging in Europe, Croatian soldiers were also pushed into this tragedy, who, under the leadership of their ban, advanced as far as Paris. It is interesting that, as part of their traditional uniform, the Croatians tied a picturesque scarf around their necks in a peculiar way. This beautiful – CROATIAN STYLE – was adopted by the picky Parisians at the time of Louis XIV. It became a new fashion piece that – A LA CROATTE – was worn. This expression quickly became the origin of the new French word – CRAVATE. The tie, as a sign of culture and nobility, was part of the bourgeois fashion of that time, conquered all of Europe and today the whole civilized world. Today CROATA is a registered trademark.
Some greeting rules
When greeting friends, you shake hands, hug each other and kiss twice (first on the right, then on the left cheek). Attention! The Serbian Orthodox population kisses each other three times (right-left-right cheek) when they are greeted.
- Formal greeting“Dobar dan” (Good afternoon), “Dobro jutro” (Good morning), “Dobra vecer” (Good evening); (Serbo-Croatian “Dobro vece”)
- Unconventional, relaxed greeting “Zdravo” (healthy , loosely translated “Hello”) or “Bok” (“Bog” = God) in some northern regions
- Formal farewell:”Doviđenja” (goodbye)
- Unconventional, relaxed farewell “Zdravo” (healthy, freely translated for goodbye), “Adio” or “Ciao”
Guests are generally welcome and are often invited to eat right away. You always pay the bill in the restaurant together (one invites the other) and women are always invited. The family visits each other regularly and there is usually a strong bond between parents and children. Women are generally emancipated. Most of them are employed. They often take on the classic female role at home.
Climate or weather
The term climate refers to long-term statements from the past – often over many years, while the weather describes the current state. That is why one speaks, for example, of weather forecasts and not of climate forecasts. However, in the long term, climate developments and changes are spoken of. There are two climatic zones in Croatia:
- InlandIn the interior of the country there is a predominant temperate continental climate, partly also a mountain climate.The average inland temperatures are:
- January: 0 ° to 2 °C
- August: 19 ° to 23 °C
- AdriaticThe climate on the Adriatic Sea is typically Mediterranean, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. However, the air temperature changes depending on the area. The summer temperatures in July can be around 34ºC in the northern part, while they rise to 38ºC in the southern part. In winter, the coldest temperatures in the northern Adriatic were measured down to -16ºC, while in the southern part they never fell below -6ºC. Average temperature on the coast:
- January: 6 ° to 11 °C
- August: 21 ° to 27 °C
The mean water temperature is 12 °C in winter and 25 °C in summer.
The most common winds on the Adriatic are the bora, the jugo (south wind) and the maestral (north-west wind).
The bora is a dry, cold fall wind that blows intermittently from the north-northeast towards the east-northeast. The wind direction is strongly influenced by the shape of the coast. The ferocity of the bora is explained by the simultaneous appearance of the warm air above the sea surface and the cold air layer above the mountain ranges on the coastal land, which cause strong air currents to achieve pressure equalization. The bora blows mainly in winter. In summer it lasts a day or a few hours, while in winter it can last up to 14 days.
Jugo (south wind) Jugo, also called Siroko (sirokko) or Silok, is a warm and humid wind that blows from east-southeast to south-southwest. The result is high waves and sometimes heavy rain. The Jugo is more characteristic of the southern Adriatic, where it blows longer and more violently than in the northern part. It blows for up to three days in summer and for up to three weeks in winter. The signs of the Jugos are a calm at the sea, weak alternating winds, a cloudy horizon, the rise in temperature and humidity, as well as the gradual decrease in air pressure. The waves from the south-east are getting bigger and bigger.
wind ) Maestral, also called maestral or smorac, is a thermal daytime wind that blows from the northwest and is the result of the difference in the warming speed of the mainland and the sea. It is active from spring to autumn and changes direction several times within a day. The Maestral is more pronounced on the southern Adriatic than on the northern Adriatic and also starts blowing earlier.
Burin (light bora)
The burin is a wind that blows in the opposite direction to the maestral. It blows at night, mainly from the north or northeast on the northern Adriatic, and from the east or southeast on the southern Adriatic. It is strongest before dawn, but soon afterwards it lies down.
The weather forecasts are made by the State Hydrometeorological Institute and can be followed on the VHF frequency of the coastal radio stations and port authorities. They are also broadcast on the channels either at the end of the news or as part of various programs for seafarers. The port authorities continuously send weather reports and warnings in four languages on their own VHF channels.
In all marinas and port authority branches it is possible to get reports on the current weather situation and weather forecasts.
The maritime radio and communications service
The whole of the Croatian coast is pretty well equipped with radio communications. The radio service for the protection of human life and for the safety of the sea is operated from Plovput from Split. Radio Split and Radio Dubrovnik are responsible for the southern Adriatic, and Radio Rijeka is responsible for the northern part of the Adriatic. According to the standards of the GMDSS system (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System), the channel for the automated acceptance of digital emergency calls is channel 70. After that, the communication is transferred to the working channel of the coast office or port office (16 or 10). The GMDSS system has been in use since February 1st, 1999. But on the previous VHF channel for emergency calls, Channel 16, uninterrupted listening will still be possible for some time.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Presents the way that HR stands for the nation of Croatia as a two-letter acronym.
Istria is the largest peninsula of the Adriatic and is located in northwestern Croatia below the Alps, by the sea and is one of the most famous holiday regions on the Mediterranean. Beach resorts such as Umag, Poreć, Vrsar, Rovinj and Rabac have made Istria’s coast famous.
In the last few years people began to discover the evergreen hinterland. Small dreamy medieval towns, mostly located on hills, fields, meadows, olive groves and almost endless vineyards.
And then the oak forests around the town of Motovun and in the valley of the Mirna river.
Only here – apart from the French Piedmont and the Italian Alba – can you find the precious white truffles, which are coveted by gourmets, and cost up to 2000 euros per kilo. Truffle season is from October to December – then the licensed “Tartufari” (truffle hunters) go in search of the hidden mushrooms that grow underground with dogs specially trained for truffle hunting. Finely grated on toasted white bread or on homemade pasta with cream, they are a real delicacy. In addition, you can enjoy one of the excellent and internationally award-winning Istrian wines, the dry white Malvazija, the dark red Teran or, for dessert, the lovely Muškat.
Kazuni are small sheds made of dry stone walls that you often see in the fields in Istria. Originally used as shelters and to store tools.
Dvigrad is the largest ruined city. In the 17th century the city was abandoned due to the plague.
Euphrasian Basilica in Poreć
The Euphrasian Basilica in Poreć has been on the World Heritage List since 1997. The basilica was built in the 6th century and is a pearl of Byzantine culture. There is a subtle sacred architecture here: many great Christian stories are told in mosaic stones, high columns and old mosaics of secret churches from Roman times.
The Baredine cave is a karst phenomenon 600 m below ground with numerous stalactites and stalagmites and a constant air temperature of 14ºC. A very rare creature lives on the floor of the grotto, the olm.
Hum – the smallest town in the world from the 12th century, surrounded by a city wall, a city gate, a box and a circular street for the seven – eight residents.
Golden yellow like olive oil and with its unique aroma, the famous wine “Žlahtina” is one of the symbols of the largest Croatian island of Krk. The grape harvest on Krk is a real festival. Traditionally, the date of harvest of this protected grape variety is set by the Croatian Wine Institute. This has been the last week of September for years. The center of viticulture on the island of Krk is the town of Vrbnik, located on a rock above the sea. The autochthonous variety “Žlahtina” thrives on the extensive vineyards around the town.
Istria is divided by a deep, long and winding valley.
One half goes towards the sea and is associated with a wide river, the other half looks like a canyon that extends as far as Pazin. The part that goes to the sea is called the “Canal” and the other part that goes through the mainland is called “Draga”. Even if one can only speak of the remains of a prehistoric watercourse, and not of a glacier, this natural phenomenon is called “fjord” in Istria.
The valley to the sea is 12 kilometers long, on average 600 m wide and 35 m deep.
The excursion destination Limfjord was already known in Roman times for its excellent mussel farming – especially for oysters.
Motovun (Montana) is the best preserved medieval town that can be found in Croatia. If you come to the Gegeng, you should stop here for a few hours.
Although the town only has around 500 residents, it is rich in historical buildings and structures.
The Venetians gave Motovun its present-day architectural form. The entire town is surrounded by an inner and an outer wall ring, built around 1300, from the 16th to the 17th century with defensive towers and city gates.
The town’s main square “Trg Andrea Antico” was named after the Motovun-born composer Andrea Antico (1480-1538).
You can find a building complex from the 14th to 17th centuries. The square is dominated by a crenellated defensive tower from the 13th century.
The local free-standing bell tower belongs to St. Stephen’s Church (Sveti Stjepan) from the early 17th century, and was built according to the plans of the famous Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580) and his students.
On the west side of the square is the east facade of the Podesta Palace.
Also worth mentioning is the fountain with its cistern at the northern end of the square, which was built in the 15th century.
The Polesini Palace adjoining the southern part of the square is now used as a hotel. The fountain in front of the hotel dates from 1330.
Brijuni National Park The Brijuni
National Park consists of 14 green islets located on the southwest coast of Istria. You can get to the national park directly from the small town of Fažana by boat. Even in Roman times, this place was a summer residence, as evidenced by numerous villas, mosaics and remains of ancient temples.
The Brijuni archipelago is the most visited place in Istria. A small train takes you across the car-free island with the zoo. Tito’s Museum is also located there. Cape Kamenjak is located on the southern tip of the Istrian peninsula. Just as five fingers of the Greek Peloponnese plunge into the Mediterranean, a long “finger” of Cape Kamenjak extends into the Adriatic.
Pula is the largest city in Istria and the economic, cultural and administrative center in the south-western part of the peninsula.
The three thousand year old city hides great historical and especially ancient treasures. They are called “Little Rome” because of their numerous well-preserved Roman memorials: z. B. the arena, which still serves as a beautiful amphitheater for concerts and events, the richly decorated triumphal arch of the Sergians, the twin gate, the Hercules gate, the temple of Augustus, the antique theater, the various mosaics that can be found all over the city, as well as the Archeological Museum.
The largest bell tower with a height of 60 m belongs to the church of Sv. Blaž in Vodnjan, which is also the largest church in Istria.
Dubrovnik impresses with its impressive location on a rising rock that is washed by the sea on three sides. The medieval old town is surrounded by imposing fortress walls that are accessible for two kilometers. It is full of sights and world-class art treasures. The Dubrovnik Fortress, the Rector’s Palace from the 15th century, in which the City Museum displays its treasures, the Franciscan monastery with its cloister and the attached museum, the Jesuit Church of Sv. Ignacijo and the former Poor Clare Convent. There is also something on offer culturally in Dubrovnik. In July/August the city hosts the summer festival with opera, theater, ballet and concerts.
More about Dubrovnik can be found here >>> at goruma.
Šibenik with its sights is one of the most beautiful cities in the eastern Adriatic region. The cathedral of Sv. Jakov with the baptistery and the cathedral square on the northeast side of the cathedral.
Split is the second largest city in Croatia after Zagreb and the economic and cultural metropolis of Dalmatia. Tourism is of great importance. In addition to the numerous sights, there is also a wide range of leisure and accommodation options. Sights such as the Diocletian’s Palace with peristyle (old town), the Cathedral of Sv. Duje, the museums and galleries, the city park and the waterfront attract many visitors.
More about Split can be found here >>> at goruma.
Trogir is particularly impressive because of its medieval old town, which is a single museum. The small town is rich in cultural and historical monuments, of which the Cathedral of Sv. Lorro with the famous main portal by Master Rodovan as well as the palaces and simple town houses from the 13th to 17th centuries are most worth seeing. The main square Trg Ivan Pavla II invites you to relax and linger.
Zadar is the largest city in northern Dalmatia and is important both as a commercial metropolis and as a tourist center. In the old town center there are many important sights such as the churches of Sv. Donat (concerts are held here in July/August), the cathedral church of St. Anastasia and Sv. Krsevan. In addition, visitors should take time to visit the Roman Forum, the Archaeological Museum and the city fortifications.
Slavonia (Croatian Slavonija – not to be confused with Slovenia or Slovakia) is one of the historical territories that make up today’s state of Croatia. Slavonia consists mainly of lowlands in the north, south and east; in the west and the middle there is a low mountain range with the peaks Papuk (953m), Dilj (461m) and Psunj (984m). It extends east-west between the Drava (border with Hungary) in the north and the Save (border with Bosnia-Herzegovina) in the south to the Danube (border with the Serbian province of Vojvodina) in the east. The western border of Slavonia cannot be clearly defined purely geographically. The majority of the population is made up of Croatians. The Serbs are the largest minority. There are also a number of smaller nationalities,
The largest cities in Slavonia are:
- Osijek with a population of around 115,000
- Slavonski Brod with a population of around 65,000
- Vinkovci with a population of about 36,000
- Vukovar with a population of around 32,000
The boundaries of the territory to which the name Slavonia refers have shifted significantly over time. In the Middle Ages, the entire part of what was then the kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia, located in the Danube and Sava Plains, was called Slavonia (Latin Regnum Slavoniae). The political center of medieval Slavonia was today’s Croatian capital, Zagreb. After most of the kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia, with the exception of the area around Zagreb, had been conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century and as a result Zagreb became the political center of the remaining area, the name Croatia (in the narrower sense) was assigned to this western part of the transferred to medieval Slavonia. Since then the name Slavonia only refers to the eastern part of this area, which was recaptured by the Habsburg monarchy at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. While the south of Slavonia was established as a military border with the Ottoman Empire, the north came largely as a reward into the possession of generals and nobles who had participated in the Turkish Wars. To the fertile, But to stabilize largely depopulated land through constant wars in the border area to the Ottoman Empire, fortified farmers and settlers from the entire Habsburg Monarchy, but also from the German countries and from the Ottoman-controlled parts of Southeast Europe were brought into the country. As a result, Slavonia has had a very diverse ethnic makeup for centuries. The east of Slavonia was occupied by the Serbs for a while during the Yugoslav civil war, and the destruction of Vukovar became known above all.
Archaeological Museum (Arheološki Muzej)
Mainly objects from Croatia are shown here, but also Greek and Egyptian finds such as an Egyptian mummy. A special highlight of the museum is the world’s longest preserved text in the Etruscan language.
Princely Court (Rector’s Palace ) in Dubrovnik
Here you can see a historical collection, which consists of furniture, clothing, paintings, coins and documents. There are also exhibits that reflect everyday life from different times in Dubrovnik.
Mimara Museum (Muzej Miramara)
The gifts of the restorer and entrepreneur Ante Topić Mimara and his wife are on display in the Mimara Museum.
Rupe Museum in Dubrovnik
The museum is located on the Lava rock and shows old devices for receiving, storing and processing grain. You can see deep shafts that were used to store grain. An ethnographic collection is also housed here, which shows household items and clothing as well as old musical instruments.
Zagreb City Museum (Muzej grada Zagreba) The
City Museum is made up of various buildings, including a tower from the 12th century, and shows a wide variety of exhibits from the fields of heraldry, cartography and painting.
Cultural assets and monuments
Old town of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a port city and a tourist center on the southern Croatian coast with 49,278 residents. Dubrovnik is located at the foot of the limestone mountain Srdj (Sergiusberg, 412 m) in a valley that ends to the southwest with the hill Lapad and a small island that bears the oldest part of Dubrovnik. The old city center of Dubrovnik was connected to the suburbs on the other side of the valley through the filling of the marshy valley between the Bay of Gruz in the north and the Old Port in the south and the creation of the Placa (Stradun). Thus Stradun became the main street and promenade of the city. Your two endpoints are the city gates Ploče in the east and Pile in the west. After the construction of the port of Gruz, this area gradually merged with the old town center. Later, Dubrovnik expanded to the Lapad peninsula, the base of the Sergius Hill and outside the city walls in the direction of Župa. Dubrovnik is a city with a unique political and cultural past (Republic of Dubrovnik, City Constitution of 1272), whose monuments and beauty are world-famous (registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List). Dubrovnik is one of the most charming and famous cities in the Mediterranean.
Medvedgrad Castle in Zagreb
Only a ruin above the city remains of the earlier Medvedgrad Castle. This was built in the 13th century, but was almost completely destroyed by two earthquakes in 1574 and 1590. It has not been used since then. The castle was restored in the second half of the 20th century. From here there is a fascinating view of Zagreb.
The historical center of the island is characterized by its extraordinarily beautiful location on the Pelješac Canal, its numerous architectural and cultural monuments and its rich tradition in the field of seafaring, shipbuilding and stonemasonry. Birthplace of the famous seafarer Marco Polo. Today there is an important tourist center there.
Palace of Emperor Diocletian in Split
Split, the port city in central Dalmatia, has around 189,000 residents. Located on a headland between the eastern part of Kastela Bay and the Split Canal. The western part of the headland is occupied by the Marjan mountain (178 m). The mountain ridges Kozjak (780 m) and Mosor (1330 m) shield the city from the north and northeast and separate it from the hinterland. Mediterranean climate: hot, dry summers and mild, humid winters. Split is one of the sunniest places in Europe: on average there are seven hours of sunshine a day (in July around 12 hours). Evergreen Mediterranean vegetation. Split is not only Dalmatia’s largest city and cultural metropolis, not only a traffic junction from which land and sea routes lead to the numerous Dalmatian holiday resorts, but also a popular destination for tourists and day trippers.
Roman Arena in Pula
Pula is the largest city in Istria.
It is located in the inner part of a bay, which is divided into three harbor basins by the islands of Sveta Katarina, Sveti Andrija and Uljanik.
Pula is the most important and largest port in Istria. The well-protected bay is one of the best natural harbors on the Adriatic.
Because of its size, the good location, two entrances (directly from the sea or through the Fazana Channel) and the flat shores, the well-protected Bay of Pula has always had a special strategic importance. The flat and open relief with a thick layer of red earth is typical of the landscape.
The former oak forests were reduced to low bushes. Pine trees were planted in the vicinity of Pula.
Pula is an important economic center with developed shipbuilding and an important tourist center (marina). The importance of Pula as a traffic junction for the whole of Istria has increased in particular due to the modernization of the airport.
In 1832 the Austrian Emperor Franz Ferdinand I also visited Pula. The first seaside resort intended for citizens and tourists, Bagno Polese, between the small island of Uljanik and the administrative building in the port, opened in 1885. Then the small lido “Sakordana” and the marine bath were set up on the island of Sveti Petar, where men and women could bathe at different times according to a fixed schedule.
The Zelenika lido was established during the First World War and the Stoja seaside resort in 1936 (Stabilimento bagni di Stoia).
Riviera – the first modern hotel in Pula opened in 1908. During the Italian rule there were a few hotels: Miramare, Bologna, Milano and Centrale and two summer colonies for children: Principe di Piemonte on Stoja and Sandro Mussolini on Vargarola. In the 30s of the 20th century there were also some travel agencies operating in Pula.
Tourism in Pula experienced its heyday in the 1960s, when the first holiday settlements were built along the beautiful, richly indented coast with lush vegetation south of Pula (Zlatne stijene, Ribarska koliba, Verudela).
Churches and other sacred places
The Croatians adopted Christianity in the 8th century and then began to build houses of worship, which are also regarded by a competent public as the most important Croatian contribution to European architecture. Splendid examples of this architecture have been preserved from Istria to Dubrovnik:
The Church of the Holy donot (Krk Island), the Errettungskirche on the Cetina, the Holy Cross Church in Nin, the Church of Sts. Donat in Zadar, the Trinity Church (Split), the Church of St. Dimitrius (Gabrile in Konavle). Churches built later show the style elements that correspond to their respective epoch. Here, too, top artistic and structural achievements were achieved: the Trogir Cathedral, the Cathedral of St. Tryphon Kotor, in present-day Montenegro, the Cathedral in Split. Reconstruction of Diocletian’s mausoleum from the 4th century. The Šibenik Renaissance Cathedral, built by Juraj Dalmatinac), as well as the Euphrasian basilica in Porec from the 8th century with its gilded mosaics are under the protection of UNESCO.
The Renaissance cathedral in Hvar and the fortified church of St. Maria in Vrboska are in no way inferior to them in terms of beauty.
Some cities are so shaped by their churches that we recognize them as their “hallmarks” (the four bell towers on Rab, the church of St. Donat in Zadar, next to the chapel of Charlemagne, the largest European sacred building of the 9th century, the Church of Anastasius and Simeon in Zadar, the red brick domes in Cakovo and Osijek).
Scattered in Istria are small churches, which are treasuries of medieval fresco paintings (Berom, frescoes by Vincento from Kastav) and the Glagolitic script, which we used alongside the Latin until the 18th century.
The large number of copper onion domes in the continental part is evidence of the opulent Baroque. Many churches in Croatia are dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, among which the one of St. Mary the Snow in Belce stands out for its beautiful and rich baroque style. Real sanctuaries are the Mother of God of Bistrica, the Mother of God of Trsat, Our Lady of Sinj, Our Lady of the island – Solin, Our Lady of Vocin, Our Lady of Consolation – Alimas ” Our Lady of Remete that Mother of Godfrom Jerusalem. Only two Croatian sanctuaries are not consecrated to Our Lady: Ludbreg – the sanctuary of the Most Holy Blood of Christ and the Church of Joseph in Karlovac.
The walls of the Benedictine, Pauline, Franciscan, Dominican and Jesuit monasteries “guard” a large part of the entire Croatian cultural, scientific and artistic heritage.
Major works from the Romanesque period:
- Anastasius Cathedral in Zadar (1285)
- Split cathedral (1214) with its famous wooden doors by Andrija Buvina
- Cathedral in Trogir with its famous portal reliefs (1240)
The following is best known from the Gothic period (beginning in the 14th century):
- Franciscan monastery in Dubrovnik with the cloister (1327 – 1348)
From the time of the Italian Renaissance:
- Prince’s Palace (15th/16th century) with the beautiful arcades in the inner courtyard
- Palais Sponza (1516-1522) both in Dubrovnik
Croatia is home to numerous renowned private and state universities and colleges. The largest or most famous higher education institutions include:
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts is the highest scientific institution in the country and to a certain extent a successor to the “South Slav Academy” founded in 1866 by Emperor Franz Joseph I. The academy is constitutionally established for the preservation of Croatian sciences and culture by law.
Ruđer Bošković Institute
Founded in Zagreb in 1950, the Ruđer Bošković Institute is the largest interdisciplinary institute in Croatia. It currently employs around 200 scientists.
University of Split (Sveučilište u Splitu)
The State University of Split, founded in 1974, now covers around 8,600 m2 and consists of the following faculties:
- Chemical engineering
- Electrical engineering
- Catholic theology
- mechanical engineering
- Marine engineering
- Art Academy Split
University of Zagreb (Sveučilište u Zagreb)
This state university was founded in 1669 and is now the largest and oldest university in the country. It currently has around 52,600 students. With a share of more than 50% of nationwide university research, it is also a significant research university.
In Croatia, 7.5% of the total area is already under nature protection. This area is to be doubled again. The aim is to preserve and create an ecologically largely intact reserve in the middle of Europe in Croatia.
Briuni National Park
The Brijuni National Park consists of 14 green islets located on the southwest coast of Istria. You can get to the national park directly from the small town of Fažana by boat. Even in Roman times, this place was a summer residence, as evidenced by numerous villas, mosaics and remains of ancient temples.
The Brijuni archipelago is the most visited place in Istria. A small train takes you across the car-free island with the zoo. Tito’s Museum is also located there. Cape Kamenjak is located on the southern tip of the Istrian peninsula. Just as five fingers of the Greek Peloponnese plunge into the Mediterranean, a long “finger” of Cape Kamenjak extends into the Adriatic.
The name (from Greek elaphos = deer) denotes an archipelago made up of thirteen islands. These lie between Dubrovnik and the offshore Peljesac peninsula (see below). The islands are more than popular not only with tourists but also with locals.
The following islands belong to it
- Lokrum (included by some – see below)
- Sveti Andrija
Excursion boats to the Elaphiti Islands leave from Gruz harbor.
This island is located about 700 meters across from Dubrovnik and is sometimes included in the Elaphite Islands. In addition to indescribably magnificent vegetation and the 10 meter deep salt lake (Mrtvo more), the former French fortification “Port Royal”, various sacred buildings and a picturesque natural harbor can be visited here. If you want to make excursions on the boat to the island of Lokrum, you will leave from the Old Dubrovnik Port but also from the Gruz Port. Boats run every 30 minutes in summer and every 60 minutes in spring and autumn.
The Jarun Lake, located on the outskirts of Zagreb, is surrounded by a local recreation area, where the people of Zagreb like to retreat to relax, do sports, but also to celebrate. The center of this leisure area is the said lake, which is ideal for windsurfing and rowing. The lake can be reached by trams number 5 or 17 or by taxi.
Krka National Park
The Krka National Park, founded in 1985, covers an area of around 110 km². I.
In the park, the 45 km long Krka flows between Knin and Skradin. About 3.5 km north of Knien at the foot of the Dinaride Mountains at the Topoljski buk waterfall is the source of the river. Its confluence with the Mediterranean is near Šibenik. In the national park you can find about 860 different plant species and 220 animal species. Here one finds the area of the lakes of the river one of the largest bat colonies in Europe.
Between the island of Korcula and the city of Dubrovnik lies the island of Mljet, the western part of which has been declared a national park because of its special landscape. The lush flora, the forests that stretch to the sea, the rich fauna and, last but not least, the valuable cultural monuments were decisive for this.
Plitvice Lakes National Park The Plitvice Lakes
National Park is made up of 16 lakes connected by 92 waterfalls. Because of its unique beauty and its rich flora and fauna, the area was declared a national park in 1949. In 1979, the Plitvice Lakes were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Medvednica Nature Park
The nature park surrounds a large part of the Medvednica mountain range, which extends north of Zagreb. The sljeme forms the highest point. The Medvednica can be reached quickly and easily from the city center.
Paklenica is part of the Velebit, the largest Croatian mountain range. The national park is located in the southern part of the mountain range that slopes down to the sea. The up to 400 m deep gorges Velika and Mala Paklenica are among the most impressive forms of erosion in Croatia. The vegetation with its dense forests of black pines and beeches and the fauna of Paklenica, which includes rare insects, reptiles and bird species – including the griffon vulture – is unusual. Anica kuk, the 400 m high rock in this gorge, is the most popular mountaineering destination in Croatia.
With 350 km² Pelijesac is the second largest peninsula in Croatia. The only mainland connection is to Dubrovnik. A visit is worth it just because of the magnificent vegetation and the breathtaking landscape.
Risnjak is a mountain range in Gorski Kotar, the most wooded area in Croatia. Its peaks are up to 1528 m high. Risnjak became a national park because of its vegetation that is worth protecting. The influence of the coastal, inland, Dinaric Alps and the Alps has shaped the flora and fauna. The name of the mountain comes from “ris” – the lynx that can still be found here today.
Croatia: UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Old Town of Dubrovnik (1979, 1994)
In the 3rd century BC There was an Illyrian settlement on the rocky island and when the Slavs invaded in the 6th century, many residents fled to the rocky island.
In the middle of the 6th century the rock was fortified between 550 and 560.
After the Slavs drove the population of from the mainland, they settled in this city and founded the city of Dubrovnik. In the 12th century, the island and the mainland were connected by filling in the separating water.
The rule of the occupiers changed frequently, so Dubrovnik was under the rule of Venice, the Mongols besieged the city and devastated the surrounding country, then the city allied with Bosnia, later recognized the rule of the Croatian-Hungarian kings until the city became independent.
In 1416 the slave trade was banned. Dubrovnik got a merchant fleet.
The earthquake in 1667 destroyed many buildings in the now prosperous city-state.
In 1809, Dubrovnik came under foreign rule again – the French and the Austrians – until the time when Yugoslavia was founded and is now part of Croatia. Although Dubrovnik was under constantly changing rule, the city gives a remarkable image of medieval fortifications with city walls and impressive gates and a regular network of streets. In the city you can find Renaissance and Baroque buildings. Particular attention should be paid to the city walls, which are almost 2 km long and up to 6 m wide, the promenade, the Prince’s Palace, the Church of St. Blaise, the cathedral, the Roland column, monasteries, the customs house and the town hall.
The old town of Dubrovnik is car-free.
The old town of Dubrovnik was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979 and expanded in 1994.
Old town and palace of Emperor Diocletian in Split (1979)
The Diocletian’s Palace is located in the city center of the port city of Split. After his abdication as Roman Emperor in AD 305, Diocletian lived in this palace, which was converted into a fortress after his death.
The palace took up an area of 30,000 square meters.
Buildings were later built around the palace, such as B. the cathedral, Gothic palaces and palaces from the Renaissance and Baroque. Worth seeing are the mausoleum of Diocletian, which is now a church, the rectangular courtyard with the colonnades, the temple of Jupiter, etc.
The old town and the palace of Emperor Diocletian were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1979.
Plitvice Lakes National Park (1979; 2000)
The Plitvice Lakes National Park is located in a karst area near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its area is approximately 297 km².
The Plitvice Lakes were formed in the valley between the Mala Kapela mountains in the west and Plješevica in the east. Bears, wolves, lynx and around 50 different mammal species
still live in the wild in the protected area.
Butterfly species are given with about 320 and 160 different bird species were counted, for example the golden eagle.
Numerous birds also nest there. At least 20 different bat species are native to the area. The abundance of fish in the 14 lakes is very high and a large number of amphibians have been sighted, such as the European pond turtle, adder and rare species of lizards.
The Plitvice Lakes National Park was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979 and expanded in 2000.
Euphrasian Basilica and the historic city center of Porec (1997)
The city of Porec is located on the west coast of Istria.
In the old town is the Euphrasius Basilica, which combines early Christian and Byzantine architecture. The bones of St. Maurus, who was murdered as a martyr during the persecution of Christians, are said to lie in the church.
Since the 6th century, hardly anything has changed in terms of their shape and the decoration with alabaster, mother-of-pearl, stucco and marble. You can see well-preserved mosaics in the basilica – e.g. B. admire the fish as a Christian symbol.
Outside the basilica are the bishop’s palace, a chapter house and the baptistery.
Finds of coins and older mosaics from the 4th century prove that there must have been an earlier church in the same place before the basilica, which was built in the 6th century.
The Euphrasian Basilica and the historic town center of Porec were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997.
Historical city of Trogir (1997)
The port city of Trogir is about 25 km west of Split, the old town being on an island.
The old town has two bridges, a stone one to the mainland and a bridge with a movable central part to the adjacent island of Čiovo.
The old town was already in the 3rd century BC. Colonized by Greeks. In the 11th century it became a bishopric until 1828.
The Saracens conquer the city and destroy a large part of it, but it is rebuilt very quickly and beautiful Romanesque churches emerged.
The occupiers changed frequently, so Trogir was temporarily under Venetian rule, built Renaissance and Baroque buildings, then it belonged to Austria, France, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, then it becomes part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
In 1990 Trogir belongs to the state of Croatia. The old town of Trogir, surrounded by a city wall, is an urban masterpiece in which there are palaces, a fortress, churches and houses from the Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque periods.
The historic city of Trogir was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997.
Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik (2000)
The Cathedral of St. Jacob is an important Renaissance building in Dalmatia.
Construction of the cathedral began in 1431 and was completed in 1535.
Pope Leo XIII. inaugurated it in 1555 and named it “Basilica minor”.
Three architects from northern Italy, Dalmatia and Tuscany built the church, which was built entirely from stones.
Stone portraits of men, women and children were placed on the frieze of the church. For the dome and the vault, they constructed a construction method that was unique until then.
This is a special honorary title and binds the respective church more closely to the Vatican.
The Cathedral of St. James was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2000.
Old beech forests and primeval beech forests (2007; 2011 and 2017)
The ancient beech forests of the Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia) and other regions of Europe were added to the list of UNESCO natural heritage sites in 2007.
The Carpathian Mountains extend primarily over Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania.
In 2011, the natural heritage was expanded to include five beech forest areas in Germany. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is only native to Europe and is of particular importance for the European temperate deciduous forests.
In July 2017, at the UNESCO meeting in Krakow in Poland, the world heritage was expanded by 63 areas in 10 countries, namely in Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Croatia, Austria, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and the Ukraine.
Stari Grad Plain (2008)
The port town of Stari Grad is located in the west of the island of Hvar off the Croatian coast.
You can reach Stari Grad with a car ferry from Split, Pescara and Ancona.
In the 4th century BC Greeks from Paros settled the island in the 3rd century BC and left mosaics that were later found under streets and there are remains of a city wall, although the Romans in the 2nd century BC. Almost completely destroyed the city. On the southern side of the bay, houses from the time of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy can be found, which have been beautifully restored.
The city and the plain are located on a sheltered bay. The area around Stari Grad is particularly fertile and it was used for growing wine and olives. The cultivation is practically since the 4th century BC. BC has not been changed for 24 centuries. The ancient border marks show that the country was strictly geometrically divided. The fields are surrounded by pine forests.
The Stari Grad Plain was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008.
Stećci – Medieval tombstones (2016)
Stećci is the plural of Stećak, which describes a medieval tombstone of a certain shape. There are more than 58,000 of these medieval tombstones in the various Balkan countries.
Numerous stones can be found in Herzegovina near Stolac in the Radimlja burial ground. Stolac is a small town with a population of 15,000 near Mostar.
There are also larger collections of these tombstones near Lake Blidinje, which is the largest lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina with an area of 3.2 km² .
They are less common in the more distant regions of Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. A total of 30 sites in four countries with the tombstones were selected by UNESCO.
These tombstones date from between the 12th and 16th centuries, around 6,000 of which are decorated with bas-reliefs depicting human figures.
Often you will also find scenes from the everyday life of the people of that time, hunting or jousting as well as symbols such as crosses or crescents. Sometimes they are also provided with inscriptions.
The Stećci selected by UNESO cross borders with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia and were entered on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites on July 17, 2016.
Venetian Defense System of the 15th to 17th Centuries (2017)
Such defensive structures protected numerous cities of the Republic of Venice between the 15th and 17th centuries. A total of six sites of the defense system, which extends over a length of around 1,000 km between Lombardy in Italy and the east coast of the Adriatic Sea in Croatia and Montenegro , have been included in the World Heritage List. These fortifications reflect the changes in military techniques and construction methods that followed the introduction of gunpowder.
A particularly interesting facility is located in the town of Palmanova, which has around 5,500 residents, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in Italy.
Other protected fortifications are the fortified city of Peschiera del Garda in Italy, the fortified city of Bergamo in Italy, the fortress of Saint Nicholas in the Šibenik-Knin County in Croatia, the defense system of Zadar in Croatia and the fortified city of Kotor in Montenegro.
The Venetian Defense System crosses borders with Italy and Croatia and was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List at the UNESCO meeting that met in Krakow, Poland, from July 2 to 12, 2017.